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Published In: Bryologia Universa 2: 671. 1827. (Bryol. Univ.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/21/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/8/2017)

Phyllogonium contains three species with a tropical American-African distribution; all three species in the Neotropics. A conspicuous element in the tropical Andes, this genus is found in premontane to more commonly in mid and high montane forest, commonly epiphytic on branches and occasionally trunks, less often on humus or leaf litter, particularly on steep banks. The genus is characterized by the pendent habit, 2-ranked, oblong or oblong-ovate, conduplicate leaves, apiculate or truncate apex, auriculate base, short and forked costae, and strongly porose laminal cells. Treatment adapted from Lin (1983).


Phyllogonium contiene tres especies con distribución tropical en América y áfrica; las tres especies están presentes en el Neotrópico. Un elemento conspicuo y común en el bosque montano de los Andes tropicales. El género se caracteriza por el hábito pendiente, hojas dispuestas en 2-filas, oblongas u oblongo-ovadas, conduplicadas, ápices apiculados o truncados, base redondeada o auriculada, costa corta y bifurcada, y células de la lámina marcadamente porosas.


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Plants medium sized to rather large, forming long pendent strands from loose mats, glossy green, yellowish-green or golden-brown. Primary stems creeping; leaves scale-like. Secondary stems usually pendulous, to 50 cm or more, irregularly pinnately branched, few to many; in cross-section outer 2-4 rows of cells small, thick-walled, inner cells larger, rather thick-walled, central strand absent; pseudoparaphyllia foliose. Leaves loosely imbricate, usually appearing 2-ranked, ovate-oblong to oblong, 2.5-4.5 mm long, deeply concave and compressed laterally, smooth or undulate, apex rounded or truncate, apiculate and recurved or erect, base auriculate; margins plane, entire; costae absent or short and forked; laminal cells smooth and strongly porose throughout, median cells linear to oblong-rectangular; alar cells differentiated, shortly rectangular to subquadrate-rounded, strongly porose, usually rusty-red. Dioicous. Perichaetia lateral, leaves differentiated, abruptly long acuminate from an broadly ovate base. Setae short to somewhat elongate, 0.5-3.5 mm long, equal to or longer than capsule, smooth. Capsules shortly exserted or immersed, suberect, urn oblong-cylindrical to ovoid, 1.2-2.5 mm; exothecial cells mostly quadrate, ± thick-walled; stomata present or absent; annulus absent; opercula conic-rostrate, oblique. Prostome present, represented by 1-3 layers adnate to the exostome; peristome single or double, exostome teeth 16, smooth; endostome absent or if present represented only by a low, hyaline basal membrane Calyptrae mitrate or cucullate, sparsely to densely hairy. Spores spherical, papillose.


Plantas medianas hasta bastante grandes, formando hebras largas pendientes desde matas laxas, verde brillantes, verde amarillentas o pardo doradas. Tallos primarios reptantes; hojas escuamiformes. Tallos secundario generalmente péndulos, hasta 50 cm o más, ramificaciones irregularmente pinnadas, pocas hasta muchas; en corte transversal 2-4 filas externas de células pequeñas, con paredes gruesas, células internas mayores, con paredes muy gruesas, cordón central ausente; pseudoparafilos foliosos. Hojas laxamente imbricadas, generalmente parecen dispuestas en 2-filas, ovado-oblongas hasta oblongas, profundamente cóncavas y comprimidas lateralmente, lisas o unduladas, ápices redondeados o truncados, apiculados y recurvados o erectos, base auriculada; márgenes planos, enteros; costa ausente o corta y bifurcada; células de la lámina lisas y marcadamente porosas en toda la superficie, células mediales lineales hasta oblongo-rectangulares; células alares diferenciadas, brevemente rectangulares hasta subcuadrado-redondas, marcadamente porosas, generalmente rojo ferruginosas. Dioicas. Periquecios laterales, hojas diferenciadas, abruptamente largo-acuminadas desde una base ampliamente ovada. Setas cortas hasta algo alargadas, iguales o más largas que las cápsulas, lisas. Cápsulas brevemente excertas o inmersas, suberectas, urna oblongo-cilíndrica hasta ovoide; células exoteciales generalmente cuadradas, con paredes ± gruesas; estomas presente o ausentes; anillo ausente; opérculo cónico-rostrado, oblicuo; prostoma presente, representado por 1-3 capas adnatas al exostoma; peristoma simple o doble, exostoma con 16 dientes, lisos; endostoma ausente o si presente entonces representado sólo por una membrana basal baja y hialina. Caliptra mitrada o cuculada, escasamente hasta densamente pelosa. Esporas esféricas, papilosas.


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1. Leaves undulate, leaf auricles large, apex truncate … P. viscosum
1. Leaves smooth, leaf auricles small, apex acute or apiculate … 2.
2. Leaf apex acute and recurved, leaves ca. 3.6 mm long … P. viride
2. Leaf apex pungent-apiculate, erect, leaves ca. 3 mm long… P. fulgens
1. Hojas onduladas, aurículas foliares grandes, ápice trunco … P. viscosum
1. Hojas lisas, aurículas foliares pequeñas, ápices agudos o apiculados … 2.
2. Apice foliar agudo y recurvado, hojas aprox. 3.6 mm de largo … P. viride
2. Apice foliar pungente-apiculado, hojas aprox. 3 mm de largo … P. fulgens
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