Home Flora of Pakistan
Home
Name Search
Families
Genera
Species
District Map
Grid Map
Inventory Project
Orchidaceae Juss. Search in IPNISearch in NYBG Virtual Herbarium Decrease font Increase font Restore font
 

Published In: Genera Plantarum 64–65. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: J. RENZ
Contributor Institution: Basel, Switzerland.
General/Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Distributed in all climatic zones, except polar and extreme desert regions. Approx. 800 genera with 25,000-30,000 taxa. 47 species, all terrestrial, belonging to 26 genera, are represented in our area.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for financing this research under PL-480. Thanks are also due to the Directors of the various herbaria for providing all the facilities to the author.

 

Export To PDF Export To Word
Plants with tuberoids or rhizomes, terrestrial or epiphytic, occasionally saprophytic. Leaves radical or cauline, sometimes reduced to sheaths. Inflorescence one to many-flowered. Flowers zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, usually reversed (resupinated) by torsion of ovary or pedicel. Perianth-segments in 2 whorls: the outer of 3 ± equal segments (sepals), the inner with 2 lateral equal (petals) and one unequal, medium (labellum). Labellum highly modified in shape and coloration, with or without a spur. Style and stamen ± fused to a column (gynostemium). Fertile anthers 1 or 2, the steriles transformed into staminodes near base of column. Fertile stigmas 2-3, usually confluent, a sterile modified into the rostellum, a tissue separating the anther from the fertile stigma. Pollinia 2, sometimes 2-4 parted, or 4, waxy or powdery-granulose, often attached by stalk-like caudicles to 1 or 2 viscid glands (viscidia), which can be free or enclosed in 2 or a single pouch (bursicula). Ovary inferior, sessile or pedicellate; placentation parietal, 1-locular, rarely 3-locular. Fruit a capsule, longitudinally dehiscing by 3 or 6 slits. Seeds tiny, numerous, without endosperm.
 

Export To PDF Export To Word Export To SDD
Switch to indented key format
1 Labellum not slipper-shaped. Fertile anther one (2)
+ Labellum slipper-shaped. Fertile anthers two 1 Cypripedium
2 (1) Plants saprophytic, leafless or autotrophic with rudimentary leaves. Stem with pale brown or greenish-sheaths (3)
+ Plants autotrophic, with well-developed green leaves (7)
3 (2) Sepals and petals free, ± spreading (4)
+ Sepals and petals fused, bell-shaped 18 Gastrodia
4 (3) Flowers not reversed; labellum facing upwards 4 Epipogium
+ Flowers reversed (resupinated); labellum facing downwards (5)
5 (4) Rhizome creeping and branched. Labellum whitish with red spots (6)
+ Rhizome short, with cluster of fleshy roots Labellum green to dark olive-green 2 Neottia
6 (5) Rhizome thick, not much branched. Inflorescence 2-5(-8)-flowered. Flowers erect-spreading, large; sepals c. 25 mm long 25 Cymbidium
+ Rhizome much coralloid-branched. Inflorescence up to 12-flowered. Flowers pendent, small; sepals c.5 mm long 24 Corallorrhiza
7 (2) Plants with palmate tuberoids (8)
+ Plants with entire tuberoids, tuberous corms or rhizomes (10)
8 (7) Spur cylindric, ± as long as ovary, c.8-12 mm long (9)
+ Spur saccate, much shorter than ovary, c. 2 mm long 12 Coeloglossum
9 (8) Viscid glands of pollinia without pouch 10 Gymnadenia
+ Viscid glands of pollinia enclosed in a pouch(bursicula) 9 Dactylorhiza
10 (7) Plants with entire tuberoids or tuberous corms (11)
+ Plants with rhizomes (16)
11 (10) Labellum without spur, sometimes ± conically hollowed at base (12)
+ Labellum with l or 2 spurs (13)
12 (11) Leaves solitary or few, spathulate or lanceolate to linear, contemporaneous with flowers on terminal inflorescence 11 Herminium
+ Leaf 1, petiolate, roundish, cordate at base, appearing after inflorescence-bearing stem scape 19 Nervilia
13 (11) Flowers reversed; labellum facing downwards with 1 spur (14)
+ Flowers not reversed; labellum facing upwards with 2 spurs 16 Satyrium
14 (13) Stigma sessile, cushion-like, ± confluent (15)
+ Stigma 2 on distinct processes 13 Habenaria
15 (14) Flowers large, 6-10 cm in diameter. Spur more than 8 mm long. Anther-canals ± elongated. Staminodes small, globose 15 Pecteilis
+ Flowers small, 2-3 mm in diameter. Spur 1 mm long. Anther-canals short. Staminodes filiform-elongate 14 Diphylax
16 (10) Labellum divided in hypochile and epichile (17)
+ Labellum entire or lobed (18)
17 (16) Ovary ± sessile; flowers erect 5 Cephalanthera
+ Ovary with short twisted pedicel; flowers ± pendulous 6 Epipactis
18 (16) Base of stem, thickened into leafy corm (pseudobulb) (19)
+ Base of stem not thickened (21)
19 (18) Plants slender. Leaves 4-8, membranaceous. Flowers small, unpretentious, green or greenish-lilac (20)
+ Plants robust. Leaves 2-4, papery. Flowers showy, lilac or orange-red and white 26 Calanthe
20 (19) Flowers reversed; labellum facing downwards. Column slender, elongate, c. 5 mm 20 Liparis
+ Flowers not reversed; labellum facing upwards. Column very short, cylindric, c.0.5 mm 21 Malaxis
21 (18) Roots fusiform-fleshy. Flowers spirally arranged in a single row on twisted axis 17 Spiranthes
+ Roots fibrous. Flowers on a straight axis, not spirally arranged (22)
22 (21) Rhizome elongated into irregularly shaped ovoid or oblong corm. Flowering stem(scape) separate from leaf-bearing stem, both arising from the corm (23)
+ Rhizome not tuberous. Leaves and flowers on terminal inflorescence (24)
23 (22) Pollinia 2. Leaves produced with (E.graminea) or after the flowers 23 Eulophia
+ Pollinia 4. Leaves produced with the flowers 22 Oreorchis
24 (22) Rhizome short, ascendent. Leaves cauline, not petiolate, parallel-nerved. Flowers on all sides (25)
+ Rhizome repent. Leaves ± radical, petiolate, reticulate-nerved. Flowers ± secund 7 Goodyera
25 (24) Leaves two, broad, subopposite in about the middle of the stem 3 Listera
+ Leaves numerous, linear-lanceolate, very much crowded 8 Zeuxine
 
 
© 2014 Missouri Botanical Garden - 4344 Shaw Boulevard - Saint Louis, Missouri 63110