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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/12/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 7/12/2013)
Family CAMPANULACEAE
Contributor ROBERT L. WILBUR
Description Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or rarely small trees with either watery or more typically milky sap. Leaves simple, exstipulate, mostly alternate, sessile or more typically petiolate. Inflorescences fundamentally determinate, dichasial or monochasial cymes but appearing racemose or thyrsiform or the flowers often solitary in the axils of leaves or bracts and usually pedicellate, often bibracteolate, rarely sessile in compact spikes or heads. Flowers usually bisexual, actinomorphic to strikingly zygomorphic; calyx gamosepalous, the lobes (3)5(10), imbricate or valvate; corolla usually gamopetalous, rarely lacking or polypetalous, (3)5(6) - parted, valvate (imbricate in the anomalous genus Sphenoclea), campanulate or tubular to conspicuously bilabiate; stamens (3)5(6) with the filaments rarely distinct or more typically connate as in all Panamanian genera except Sphenoclea, epipetalous basally or completely free from the corolla and alternating with its lobes, the anthers dehiscing longitudinally and introrsely, distinct or connate, biloculate; pistil 1 with 2(3) or 5 carpels, the style 1 and stigmas or stigmatic lobes usually 2(5); ovary inferior, rarely superior, 1-10-loculate but mostly with 2(5) locules and axile placentation except in unilocular genera with parietal placentae. Fruits capsules, commonly dehiscing either by apical slits or lateral pores or rarely circumscissilely, occasionally berries; seeds small, anatropous, numerous and usually with a straight embryo and abundant, fleshy endosperm.
Habit herbs, shrubs, or rarely small trees
Distribution This is a widely distributed family of approximately 60 genera and perhaps 2,000 species most abundantly represented in the montane tropics and subtropics.
Note The Campanulaceae is sometimes divided into several families with the Lo- beliaceae and Sphenocleaceae most frequently segregated. The more inclusive and conservative circumscription of the family is adopted in this treatment.
Reference McVaugh, Rogers. 1943. Campanulales: Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae. N. Amer. Fl. 32A: 1-134. Schonland, S. 1889. Campanulaceae. In A. Engler & K. Prantl (editors), Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien IV, 5: 40-70. Wimmer, F. E. 1943. Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae. In Das Pflanzenreich IV. 276b (Heft 106): 1-260. Wimmer, F. E. 1953. Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae. In Das Pflanzenreich. Heft 107: 261-813. Wimmer, F. E. 1968. Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae. Supplementum. In Das Pflanzen- reich. Heft 108: 814-916.
Key KEY TO THE GENERA a. Anthers distinct (i.e., not laterally cohering to one another); filaments distinct; flowers sessile, borne in a compact spike, the flowers contiguous ...... 7. Sphenoclea aa. Anthers laterally united; filaments monodelphous at least distally; flowers pedicellate, not borne in a dense spike, the flowers not contiguous. b. Fruit a capsule dehiscing by apical valves. c. Corolla tube not deeply cleft dorsally, the depth of the dorsal sinus about equal- ling that of the lateral ones. d. Ovary partially or wholly inferior with at least the lower half adherent to the hypanthium; corolla somewhat persistent but neither hyaline nor dis- tended by the capsule; annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. e. Corolla white, salverform, the lobes subequal, the tube 5 cm long or longer ...... 4. Hippobroma ee. Corolla normally blue, red, yellow, or greenish but not white, never salverform, the lobes strikingly dissimilar in size and shape and the tube less than 3.5 cm long. f. Corolla blue or purplish blue; pedicels 2 cm long or less; seeds smooth and shining ...... 5. Lobelia ff. Corolla purplish to reddish or orange but never bluish; pedicels 4 cm long or longer in fruit; seeds minutely foveate-reticulate ...... 6. Siphocam pylus dd. Ovary superior or nearly so, the hypanthium very short and only attached to the ovary at the base; corolla becoming hyaline and much distended by the enlarging capsule; slender annual herbs ...... 3. Diastatea cc. Corolla tube cleft at least halfway to the base on the dorsal side, the sinus thus formed much deeper than the lateral sinuses ...... 5. Lobelia bb. Fruit a dry or fleshy berry, indehiscent. g. Anther tube not constricted at the orifice but obliquely open, the anthers naked or sparsely densely soft-pilose at the tips but never with tufts of stiff bristly trichomes; style jointed above the ovary and deciduous together with the corolla and stamens from the developing fruit; pedicels ebracteolate; seeds ob- long to fusiform, much longer than wide, with a surface network of slightly elongate depressions parallel with long axis of seed ...... 1. Burmeistera gg. Anther tube somewhat rounded at the apex, the orifice partially closed and usu- ally appearing lateral due to the inturned tips of the longer anthers, the two shorter anthers densely bristly tufted or with a triangular appendage at the tip; style usually persisting together with the withering corolla and stamens on the developing fruits; pedicels usually bibracteolate; seeds lenticular, little longer than wide, with a surface network of nearly flat-bottomed and isodiametric de- pressions ...... 2. Centropogon ARTIFICIAL KEY TO THE GENERA-With emphasis on floral features a. Leaves entire; anthers and filaments distinct (i.e., neither the filaments nor the anthers laterally coherent); flowers sessile and borne in a compact and congested spike ...... 7. Sphenoclea aa. Leaves coarsely toothed, serrulate or denticulate; anthers and filaments coherent (i.e., the filaments monadelphous at least distally and the anthers laterally fused); flowers pedicellate, not borne in a dense spike of congested, contiguous flowers. b. Pedicels ebracteolate. c. Annual erect herbs less than 5(-8) dm tall; corollas blue to whitish; flowers less than 1 cm long; anther tubes less than 2 mm long; ovary 3/4 or more su- perior; seeds shiny ...... 3. Diastatea cc. Perennial herbs usually more than 5 dm tall, if erect, or stems sprawling or ascendent; corollas yellow, reddish or greenish but never bluish; anther tubes usually more than 2 mm long; ovary 3/4 or more inferior; seeds reticulate. d. Corollas greenish or greenish tinged with dark purple or russet red but never bright red; anther tube not constricted at the orifice but obliquely open, the anthers naked or sparsely to densely soft-pilose apically, never with tufts or stiff bristly trichomes; style jointed above the ovary and deciduous together with the corolla and stamens from the developing fruit; seeds oblong to fusiform with a surface network of slightly elongate depressions parallel to the long axis of the seed ...... 1. Burmeistera dd. Corolla bright red to scarlet, sometimes drying reddish purple; anther tube somewhat rounded apically, the orifice partially closed and appearing lateral due to the inturned tips of the longer anthers, the two shorter an- thers with a tuft of stiff bristles; styles usually persisting together with the withered corolla and stamens on the developing fruit; seeds lenticular, little longer than wide with a surface network of isodiametric depressions. e. Fruits indehiscent, dry or fleshy berries ...... 2. Centropogon ee. Fruit capsules with apical dehiscence ...... 6. Siphocampylus bb. Pedicels bracteolate. f. Corolla white, salverform; the corolla lobes subequal, the tube 5 cm or more long; filaments attached to the corolla tube at a point well above the upper quarter ...... 4. Hippobroma ff Corolla blue, red, yellow, greenish or purplish but not white, never salverform; the corolla lobes strikingly dissimilar in size and shape, the tube less than 5 cm long; filaments attached to the corolla tube in its lower third or free from it. g. Corolla tube cleft at least halfway to the base on the dorsal side and the sinus thus formed much deeper than the lateral sinuses; filaments free from the corolla ...... 5. Lobelia gg. Corolla tube not cleft on the dorsal side to beyond the middle of the tube; filaments attached to the base of the corolla tube. h. Fruit an indehiscent or fleshy berry ...... 2. Centropogon hh. Fruit a capsule with apical dehiscence ...... 6. Siphocampylus
 
 
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