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Published In: Genera Plantarum 117–118. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/9/2015)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/16/2015)
Contributor Text: *R.R. MILL, **M. QAISER, T. SIDDIQUI, G. R. SARWAR, S. I. ALI, S. KHATOON, SULTANUL ABEDIN, HAMIDULLAH, ***S. A. GHAZANFAR
Contributor Institution: *Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, ** University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan, *** KEW
General/Distribution: Scrophulariaceae s. l. is represented in Pakistan by 37 genera and 187 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: We are grateful to the Directors/ Curators of the following herbaria for herbarium and library facilities: A, AR, BM, CAL, DD, E, GH, K, KUH, MICH, NA, NY, O, PH, RAW, TI and TZ. We thankfully acknowledge financial support for this publication from Pakistan-U.S. Science and Technology Cooperation Program. We are grateful to Prof. Steven Blackmore, former Director, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh for permitting Mr. R. Mill to generously contribute to Flora of Pakistan. We are thankful to Dr. D. Albach (Gutenburgh Universität, Meinz) for kindly reviewing the account of the genus Veronica. Grateful thanks are due to Professor Anjum Parveen, Director, Centre for Plant Conservation, University of Karachi for providing working facilities to the project and for understanding and encouragement. It is a matter of pleasure for us to thank Dr. Shahina A. Ghazanfar for kindly helping us from time to time.

 

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Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs or rarely small trees, autotrophic rarely hemiparasitic. Leaves exstipulate, alternate, opposite or whorled. Inflorescence racemes, spike, solitary axillary or thyrsoid panicles. Flowers bisexual, usually zygomorphic bilabiate, rarely actinomorphic. Calyx (2)-4 or 5 lobed or parted. Corolla gamopetalous zygomorphic and often bilabiate or actinomorphic sometimes with a spur or pouch at base. Stamens epipetalous, mostly 4, didynamous or 2 rarely 5; sometimes 1 or 2 staminodes are present; anther locules 1 or 2 equal or subequal, free or confluent. Nectary often present at the base of the ovary, ringlike, copular or reduced to a gland. Ovary superior, bilocular, axile placentation, ovules numerous or sometimes few, style simple, stigma capitate. Fruit a capsule. Seeds numerous, variously ornamented.

The family is being considered here in a broader sense. However, the molecular systematic studies (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2009*) have amply demonstrated that the family is grossly polyphyletic. Many genera have been shifted to Orobanchaceae, Phyrmaceae, Plantaginaceae, Linderniaceae and Paulowniaceae. As we have already published the accounts of Orobanchaceae (1976), Phyrmaceae (1973) and Plantaginaceae (1974) according to the formally accepted circumscription it seems best to treat the family Scrophulariaceae sensu lato.

*Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161: 105-121.

 

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1.
+  
Corolla with distinct abaxial spur (or 2 spurs) or at least gibbous or sacate at base.
 
 
2
 
Corolla neither spurred nor with gibbous base.
 
9
2.
+
Palate on the lower lip of corolla absent. Capsule dehiscence loculicidal or septcidal.
 
 
 
23. Nemesia
 
Palate on the lower lip of corolla present. Capsule dehiscence usually porate, sometimes operculate or valvate.
 
 
 
3
3.
+
Fertile stamens 4, anthers marginally coherent and forming a ring-like structure.
 
 
 
 
4
 
Fertile stamens 2 or 4, anthers either free or marginally coherent in pairs not forming a ring-like                  structure.
 
 
 
 
5
4
+
Anthers ciliate; capsule dehiscence operculate.
 
 
 
10. Kickxia
 
Anthers glabrous; capsule dehiscence valvate.
 
 
 
22. Nanorrhinum
5
+
Abaxial base of corolla tube with distinct long spur.
 
 
 
 
6
 
Abaxial base of corolla gibbous or sometimes saccate.
 
 
 
 
7
6
+
Leaves sessile. Spur cylindrical or narrowly conical sometimes linear or filiform, often arcuate.
 
 
 
 
16. Linaria
 
 
Leaves petiolate, at least in the lower portion. Spur conical or fusiform, straight.
 
 
6. Chaenorrhinum
 
7
+
Seeds with a narrow wing.
 
 
 
 
21. Misopates
 
 
Seed without a wing.
 
 
 
8
8
+
Calyx with adaxial lobe usually conspicuously exceeding 4-abaxial lobes, exceeding corolla tube. Capsule few seeded, indehiscent.
 
 
 
 
30. Schweinfurthia
 
 
Calyx with adaxial lobe equalling or more rarely exceeding 4 abaxial lobes, shorter than corolla tube. Capsule many seeded dehiscent.
 
 
2. Antirrhinum
 
9
+
Trees.
 
 
 
 
25. Paulownia
 
 
Shrubs, subshrubs or herbs.
 
 
 
10
10
+
Inflorescence cymose, usually composed of main axis and many lateral cymes.
 
 
 
 
11
 
Inflorescence racemose or spikate, often ramified.
 
 
 
 
13
11
+
Corolla actinomorphic rotate to subrotate, stamens 4 – 5, filaments densely woolly.
 
 
 
 
35. Verbascum
 
 
Corolla zygomorphic, stamens 4 or 2, sometimes a fifth median staminode present, filaments not woolly.
 
 
 
12
12
+
Corolla tube inflated, ventricose.
 
 
 
 
32. Scrophularia
 
 
Corolla tube neither inflated nor ventricose.
 
 
29. Russelia
 

 
 
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