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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 4/8/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 4/8/2013)
Family APOCYNACEAE
Contributor JOAN W. NowIcKE
Description Trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs, annual or perennial, chiefly lacticiferous. Leaves mostly opposite, sometimes alternate, spiral, ternate, or quadrate, simple, entire, glandular at the base of the midrib or non-glandular, occasionally with glands along the entire midrib, the blade pinnately-nerved; stipulate or estipulate, mostly petiolate, sometimes perfoliate and forming stipular-like rings at the nodes, frequently with glands in the axils. Inflorescences dichasial cymes or racemes, frequently modified by unequal suppression and reduction of lateral branches. Flowers bisexual, mostly regular, bracteate or bracts apparently absent; sepals (4-)5, connate basally, equal to conspicuously unequal, mostly imbricate, the lobes with or without internal basal glands (squamellae); petals (4-)5, connate, mostly salverform or infundibuliform, with or without appendages, the limb (4-)5-lobed, contorted in bud; stamens (4-)5, included or exserted, epipetal- ous, alternate, the filaments short or absent, the anthers free and not agglutinated to the stigma or connivent and agglutinated to the stigma, with or without an enlarged connective, pollen granular or subglutinous and in tetrads; gynoecium 2(-5-8)-carpellate, apocarpous to syncarpous, the ovary superior, rarely subin- ferior, 2-locular with axile placentae or I-locular with parietal placentae, the ovules 1 to many per locule, the style usually 1, the stigma massive and com- plex, frequently umbraculiform below and capitate or pentagonal above. Fruit apocarpous or syncarpous, of 1 or 2 follicles, a berry, a capsule, or ? drupace- ouis; seeds 1 to many, dry or arillate, naked, pubescent, winged or apically co- mose.
Habit Trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs
Distribution A family of 200-300 genera and 1300-2000 species in the tropics and sub- tropics of both hemispheres and occasionally in temperate regions.
Note Economically, the family is important for its ornamentals: Vinca (peri- winkle), Nerium (oleander), Ervatamia (crepe-jasmine), Plumeria (frangipani), and Amsonia. Many species have toxic alkaloids and glycosides. Twenty-seven genera are found in Panama. Although I consider most of these taxa to be distinct and readily separable, an artificial key to genera is provided as well as a natural one, since the latter key frequently involves the verification of characters which can be observed only after tedious boiling and careful dissec- tion of flowers. However, it must be stressed that both keys are for Panamanian material only, and broader use may lead to misidentification. One other genus may be present in Panama. Couma macrocarpa Barb. Rodr. has been reported from Colon, Holdridge 6270 (MO), and from an unknown province, Salas 12500 (F); the latter collection may be erroneously labeled. However, these collections, Panamanian or otherwise, consist of a single leaf and 3 unattached leaves, and I consider positive identification impossible. Woodson's infrafamilial classification (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: 9-10. 1930; N. Amer. Fl. 29: 103-105. 1938) has been followed in the arrange- ment of the natural key. He divided the Apocynaceae into three subfamilies, the Plumerioideae (as Plumeroideae), the Echitoideae, and the Apocynoideae, based largely on the characteristics of the androecium. The Apocynoideae, a small subfamily not represented in Panama, are similar in anther characters to the Echitoideae and are separated only by the tetradinous pollen and non-glandular calyx of the former. Pichon (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 95: 211-215. 1948) re- vised the larger taxa within the family, and while his enlargement of the Apo- cynoideae by the addition of the Echitoideae has some merit, his division of this subfamily appears to be based on a vague and difficult character - the shape of the anther connective.
Reference Markgraf, F. Die amerikanischen Tabernaemontanoideen. Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 14: 151-184. 1938. Pichon, M. Classification des Apocynacees: IX, Rauvolfiees, Alstoniees, Alla- -mandees et Tabernemontanoidees. Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. n.s. 27(6): 153- 251. 1948. . Le retinacle des Echitoidees. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 95: 211-216. 1948. Woodson, R. E., Jr. Studies in the Apocynaceae. I. A critical study of the Apdcynoideae (with special reference to the genus Apocynum). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: 1-212. 1930. . The American genera of the Echitoideae. op. cit. 20: 605-790. 1933; 21: 613-623. 1934; 22: 153-306. 1935; 23: 169-438. 1936. - Observations on the inflorescences of the Apocynaceae (with special reference to the American genera of the Echitoideae). op. cit. 22: 1-48. 1935. - Apocynaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 29: 103-192. 1938. - An evaluation of the genera Plumeria L. and Himatanthus Willd. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 189-224. 1938.
Key a. Anthers completely fertile, without an enlarged connective, free from each other, not agglutinated to the stigma, the pollen tetrads separating into individual grains; calyx lobes with or without glands (squamellae) basally (Subfam. Plumer- ioideae). b. Ovary apocarpous; fruit apocarpous, with 2 follicles (Tribe Plumerieae). c. Ovaries with numerous ovules; fruits with numerous seeds. d. Calyx lobes with squamellae basally; seeds arillate. e. Calyx lobes and bracts small, not foliaceous, and not imbricate; corolla mostly salverform. This content downloaded from 192.104.39.2 on Fri, 5 Apr 2013 12:38:26 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions1970] FLORA OF PANAMA (Family 162. Apocynaceae) 61 f. Leaves large, at least some 20-30 cm long, the midrib en- larged vertically near the base; "follicles" subglobose. . . 1. Bonafousia ff. Leaves smaller, enlarged vertically near the base; follicles ? reniform, acute or acuminate apically. g. Corolla tube gg. Corolla tube > 18 mm long; flowers double or single ....... 3. Ervatamia ee. Calyx-lobes and bracts mostly large and foliaceous, imbricate; corolla salverform or infundibuliform ..... ......... 4. Stemmadenia dd. Calyx lobes without squamellae; seeds not arillate. h. Plants woody; ovary without a nectary, or with a single annular or 5-lobed nectary. i. Ovules multiseriate; flowers large and showy. j. Bracts minute; calyx regular; seeds with an eccentric basal wing; stems with pronounced leaf scars .... ...... 5. Plumeria jj. Bracts conspicuous; calyx minute or obsolete; seeds with an essentially concentric wing; stems without pronounced leaf scars ........... .................... 6. Himatanthus ii. Ovules 2-seriate; flowers small. k. Trees; leaves alternate; follicles large, woody, conspicuously compressed laterally; seeds with a large concentric wing ........................ ........... 7. Aspidosperma kk. Shrubs; leaves in whorls of 3 or 4; follicles small, not woody or conspicuously compressed laterally; seeds irregu- larly ciliate along the margins .................. 8. Tonduzia hh. Plants herbaceous; ovary with 2 ovoid nectaries. 1. Corolla salverform; flowers 1-3 in the leaf axils ...... 9. Lochnera 11. Corolla infundibuliform; flowers solitary in leaf axils .. .. 10. Vinca cc. Ovaries with 1-6 ovules; fruits 1-seeded by abortion ............ 11. Anechites bb. Ovary apocarpous or syncarpous; fruit syncarpous, berry-like, drupaceous, or capsular. m. Ovary apocarpous or syncarpous, 2-loculed, placentation axile (Tribe Rauvolfieae). n. Flowers large and showy; calyx with squamellae; leaves spiral... 12. Thevetia nn. Flowers small; calyx without squamellae; leaves opposite or whorled. o. Leaves whorled, in groups of 4, sometimes 3, anisophyllous within a whorl ...................... 13. Rauvolfia oo. Leaves opposite, isophyllous within a pair .............. 14. Lacmellea mm. Ovary syncarpous, 1-loculed, placentation parietal (Tribe Arduineae).............. 15. Allamanda aa. Anthers completely fertile or partially sterile, the connective enlarged, connivent with each other and agglutinated to the stigma, the pollen grains remaining in tetrads; calyx lobes with glands basally, absent in Rhabdadenia (Subfam. Echitoideae). p. Anthers uniformly fertile, the connective with obtuse basal lobes; leaves glandular on the midrib, at least basally. q. Inflorescences compound. r. Corolla infundibuliform; inflorescences branching repeatedly; brac- teoles conspicuous .................... 16. Allomarkgrafia rr. Corolla salverform; inflorescences obscurely dichotomous, branching 1-2 times; bracteoles minute ......................... 17. Mesechites qq. Inflorescences simple .......................... 18. Mandevilla pp. Anthers with conspicuous sterile bases, or if rarely uniformly fertile, then the connective with slender or attenuate basal lobes; leaves non-glandular except in some species of Forsteronia. s. Calyx lobes with squamellae basally. t. Squamellae alternate with the calyx-lobes or irregularly distributed. u. Corolla salverform and small. v. Inflorescences thyrsiform or spicate; seeds comose apically .......................................... .19. Forsteronia vv. Inflorescences umbellate; seeds uniformly pubescent. . .20. Malouetia uu. Corolla infundibuliform, large and conspicuous. w. Corolla with appendages within; leaves ternate ...... 21. Nerium ww. Corolla without appendages; leaves opposite. x. Leaves peltate ......... .................... 22. Peltastes xx. Leaves not peltate, obtuse basally ............ 23. Odontadenia tt. Squamellae as many as the calyx-lobes and opposite them, sometimes lacerate. y. Corolla not appendaged within and without a callous orifice. z. Corolla infundibuliform, the lobes arachnoid-villous within ............................................. 24. Fernaldia zz. Corolla salverform, the lobes not arachnoid-villous within.... ............................................. .25. Echites yy. Corolla with ligular appendages near the level of stamen attach- ment, the orifice with a callous or annular ring .... .... ,26. Prestonia ss. Calyx lobes without squamellae basally ................... 27. Rhabdadenia ARTIFICIAL KEY TO GENERA a. Leaves alternate or spiral. b. Corolla relatively small, the tube less than 5 mm long (in Panama); follicle large, woody, compressed laterally, ca. 10 cm wide; seeds peltate, with a large, ca. 9-10 mm wide, concentric wing ........................... 7. Aspidosperma bb. Corolla mostly large and showy, the tube greater than 15 mm long; berries or follicles not conspicuously large or woody and not compressed laterally; seeds with eccentric wings, or if wings concentric, then not 9-10 mm wide. c. Bracts conspicuous, ca. 13-17 mm long; calyx-lobes 4 or 5, small, less than ca. 2.5 mm long; seeds with + concentric wings ............ 6. Himatanthus cc. Bracts minute; calyx lobes 5, ? equal; seeds with or without a basal wing. d. Stems with conspicous leaf scars; calyx without squamellae; fruit a follicle; seeds winged basally ........... ................. 5. Plumeria dd. Stems without conspicuous leaf scars; calyx with squamellae; fruit a berry; seeds not winged .............................. 12. Thevetia aa. Leaves opposite, ternate, or quadrate. e. Leaves ternate or quadrate. f. Leaves ternate, mostly lanceolate. g. Corolla small, salverform, the tube ca. 3-5 mm long, without append- ages; seeds ciliate marginally . ..................... 8. Tonduzia gg. Corolla showy, infundibuliform, the tube and throat ca. 17-20 mm long, appendaged; seeds densely pubescent and comose apically.... .................................................... 21. Nerium ff. Leaves mostly quadrate, elliptic to obovate. h. Inflorescences few-flowered; flowers large and showy; fruit a spiny capsule .... 15. Allamanda hh. Inflorescences many-flowered; flowers small; fruit a small drupe.... .................................................. 13. Rauvolfia ee. Leaves opposite. i. Leaves without glands either at the base of the midrib or along its entire length. j. Leaves peltate ...................................... 22. Peltastes jj. Leaves not peltate. k. Vines or lianas, usually slender except in some species of Prestonia. 1. Flowers with a combination of long slender corolla and small, thin calyx-lobes ............. ................... 25. Echites 11. Flowers without the above combination. m. Corolla appendaged within .................. 26. Prestonia mm. Corolla not appendaged within. n. Inflorescences mostly 2-flowered; calyx-lobes without squamellae ..... 27. Rhabdadenia nn. Inflorescences several-flowered; calyx-lobes with squamellae. o. Flowers mostly large and showy; stamens connivent and agglutinated to the stigma; leaves glabrous, or if pubescent the hairs without multicellular bases. p. Squamellae alternate with the calyx-lobes or irregularly distributed; corolla throat without a thick indument .23. Odontadenia pp. Squamellae opposite the calyx-lobes; corolla throat ? closed by a thick indument. .. 24. Fernaldia oo. Flowers relatively small; stamens free and not agglutinated to the stigma; leaves pubescent, the hairs stiffened and with multicellular bases..... ..........................11. Anechites kk. Shrubs or herbs. q. Herbs, mostly slender. r. Corolla salverform; flowers 1-3 in the axils of leayes; annuals .... 9. Lochnera rr. Corolla infundibuliform; flowers single in the axils of leaves; perennials ..................... 10. Vinca qq. Shrubs. s. Inflorescences few-flowered, axillary umbells; flowers small ................ 20. Malouetia ss. Inflorescences many-flowered or if few-flowered, then not axillary umbells; flowers mostly large and showy except in some species of Tabernaemontana. t. Calyx-lobes without squamellae; fruit a berry; seeds 1-4 .................... . .......... 14. Lacmellea tt. Calyx-lobes with squamellae; fruit a follicle; seeds numerous. u. Calyx-lobes large and foliaceous, 3-25 mm long, imbricate, mostly unequal, the outer 2 smaller, the inner 3 larger .........4.Stemmadenia uu. Calyx-lobes mostly small, imbricate, ? equal. v. Leaves large, at least some 20-30 cm long, the midrib 1-2 mm high near the base be- neath; corolla tube inflated near the base; follicles somewhat spherical. 1. Bonafousia vv. Leaves, smaller, nmostly less than 20 cm long, the midrib not enlarged vertically; corolla tube cylindrical; follicles stout, but not spherical. w. Flowers double, or if single, then the corolla tube 20-22 mm long .... 3. Ervatamia ww. Flowers single, the corolla tube less than 16 mm long .2. Tabernaemontana ii. Leaves with glands at the base of the midrib or scattered along its entire length. x. Vines; flowers ? showy. y. Leaf bases hastate or cordate; glands distributed along the entire length of the midrib ............................ 18. Mandevilla yy. Leaf bases ? obtuse; glands at the base of the midrib only. z. Slender vines; glands 1 or 2 at the base of the midrib, deltoid; corolla tube cylindrical ........................ 17. Mesechites zz. Woody vines; glands numerous (> 4) at the base of the mid- rib; corolla tube inflated basally .............. 16. Allomarkgrafia xx. Shrubs; flowers small ............................... 19. Forsteronia
 
 
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