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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 5/29/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 5/29/2013)
Family GENTIANACEAE
Contributor THOMAS S. ELIAS AND ANDRE ROBYNS
Description Annual or perennial herbs, rarely subshrubs or shrubs, sometimes saprophytic and then without chlorophyll, usually erect, rarely climbing or epiphytic, the branches usually dichotomous, glabrous throughout. Leaves opposite, decussate, often connate at the base, simple, entire, estipulate, usually cauline, sometimes in basal rosettes, rarely reduced to scales. Inflorescences terminal and/or axillary, generally cymose, often dichasial, the lateral axes often becoming monochasia, sometimes reduced to a single flower, rarely racemose, spicate or verticillate; bracts and bracteoles present or not. Flowers bisexual, rarely polygamous, usually 4- to 5-merous, usually actinomorphic, often showy; calyx gamosepalous, variously divided, generally imbricate, often persistent; corolla gamopetalous, usually contorted, generally tubular, the tube usually campanulate, salverform to infundibular, occasionally calcerate; stamens alternate with and the same number as the corolla lobes, inserted in the tube of the corolla, usually included, the filaments usually filiform, the anthers dorsifixed, often versatile, bilobate at the base, 2-celled, introrse, occasionally spirally twisting at maturity, longitu- dinally dehiscent, rarely poricidal; pollen5 shed as monads or in tetrads; annular disc present or absent; pistil one, the ovary superior, generally unilocular with 2 protruding parietal placentae, occasionally bilocular with axile placentation, bicarpellate, the ovules numerous, anatropous, the style simple, varying in length, the stigma simple and usually capitate or bilamellate. Fruit a septicidal 2-valved capsule, membranous to coriaceous, rarely berry-like; seeds usually numerous, small, angulate, globose, sometimes ? compressed, sometimes winged, the testa variable, often appearing foveolate, reticulate or tuberculate; embryo tiny; endo- sperm usually copious.
Habit herbs, rarely subshrubs or shrubs
Note The Gentianaceae are primarily a temperate family with approximately 75 genera distributed throughout the world. Twelve genera and 29 species are recognized as occurring in Panama. The genus Nymphoides is often included in the Gentianaceae in the subfamily Menyanthoideae, characterized by having
Distribution distributed throughout the world.
Note the leaves alternate and the corolla lobes induplicate-valvate in bud. The genus occurs in Panama but has been treated as a separate family, the Menyanthaceae (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 56: 29-32. 1969). The diagnostic features of the pollen are taxonomically significant in defining generic limits and determining intergeneric relationships. Therefore, detailed pollen descriptions have been included in this treatment.
Key a. Plants with chlorophyll. b. Stigma undivided, capitate or clavate; pollen in monads. c. Flowers small, 5.5-8 mm long; corolla white. d. Leaves shorter than the internodes, narrowly linear; inflorescences loose ...... 1. Curtia dd. Leaves considerably exceeding the internodes, narrowly ovate to ovate- elliptic; inflorescences of dense verticillate clusters ...... 2. Enicostema cc. Flowers large, 2.8-5.4 cm long; corolla yellow to yellow-green, the lobes some- ...... 3. Lisianthiuls bb. Stigma bilamellate; pollen in monads or in tetrads. e. Petals calcarate (spurred) ...... 4. Halenia ee. Petals without spur. f. Inflorescences spicate ...... 5. Coutoulbea ff. Inflorescences cyrnose or the flowers solitary. g. Anthers spirally twisting at maturity; flowers to 1.5 cm long ......  6. Centatritun gg. Anthers various, not twisting at maturity; flowers larger. h. Flowers 4-merous; calyx 4-carinate (keeled) to 4-alate dorsally ......  7 . Schultesia hh. Flowers 5-merous. i. Flowers to 10 cm long; calyx lobes obtusely carinate (keeled) dorsally ...... 8. Symbolanthuis ii. Flowers to 5.5 cm long; calyx lobes not carinate (keeled). j. Leaves sessile; calyx 4-6 mm long; corolla tube gibbous, greenish-yellow ...... 9. Chelonanthus jj. Leaves petiolate; calyx 13-18 mm long; corolla tube not gibbous, white or salmon-pink. k. Petioles to 2 cm long; flowers 3.3-4.0 cm long; corolla broadly infundibuliform, white; pollen in monads ......  10. Macrocarpaea kk. Petioles 3-5 mm long; flowers 5-5.5 cm long; corolla tube inflated for most of its length, constricted at base and apex, salmon-pink; pollen in tetrads...... 11. Lagenanthus aa. Plants saprophytic, devoid of chlorophyll ...... 12. Voyria
 
 
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