Ecology and distribution. Open montane to subpáramo. At elevations from 1300-3450 m (Colombia: 1300-3000 m, Ecuador: 2150-3450 m, Peru: 2750 m). Mexico, Central America, West Indies, Tropical Andes (south to at least Peru), eastern and southern Africa, Madagascar and Reunion.
Aongstroemia filiformis is distinguished by the entire leaf margins, leaf costa subpercurrent, perichaetial leaf costa leaf long excurrent, and relative short seta, 2x urn length. Aongstroemia jamaicensis Müll. Hal. is a synonym.
Specimens. COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Churchill et al 15615 [Brophyta Neotropica Exsiccata VII: 302] (COL, HUA, MO, NY, etc.); Nariño: Churchill & Franco16601 (MO, NY, PSO). ECUADOR. Carchi: Steere 27578 (NY); Pichincha: Steere 26985 (NY).