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Published In: Catalogus Muscorum fere Omnium quos in Terris Amazonicus et Andinis, per Annos 1849--1860, legit Ricardus Spruceus 21. 1867. (Cat. Musc.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/26/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 3/5/2009)
General Reference:

Illustration & Map     (Last Modified On 3/5/2009)
Related Objects:
Click here for distribution map.
Illustrations: R.-L. Hu & Y.-F. Wang (eds.) 2005 (Pl. 2, figs. 1–13).
Map: Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw.) Spruce (Distribution in China)

Distribution     (Last Modified On 3/5/2009)


Habitat: in moist environments, on calcareous wet rocks and soil in mountains; alt. 390–5800 m.
Distribution: China, Japan, Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Caucasus, Europe, North, Central, and South America, North Africa, and New Zealand.

Specimens Examined     (Last Modified On 3/5/2009)
Specimens Examined:


Chinese specimens examined: Anhui: She-xian Co., W.-F. Zheng 13980 (SHNU). Beijing: Fang-shan Co., P.-T. Tchen 366, 446 (both in PE); Mt. Baihua, D.-K. Li 20671 (SHM); Mt. Panchen, Bodinier s.n. (as Amblystegium relaxum, PC); Chang-ping Co., J.-L. Liu & Z. Zhang 30 (PE); Mt. Jinshan, F.-D. Chen 60245 (PE); Mt. Miaofeng, C. Y. Yang 24 (as Hygroamblystegium ramulosum, BM); Mt. Yuquan, Anonymous 11934 (PE). Chongqing: Nan-chuan Co., Q. Li 2103 (IFSBH), X.-Y. Hu 0750 (MO, PE), M.-Z. Wang 860626 (MO, PE). Gansu: He-shui Co., A.-R. Li 333 (MO, PE); Lanzhou City, Z.-L. Jin 4 (PE), E. Licent 250 (as Amblystegium campyliopsis, BM); Mt. Qilian, C. Gao & X. Fu 369 (IFSBH); Tianshui City, J.-M. Liu 10121 (PE, WUK). Guizhou: Sui-yang Co., C. Gao & J.-Y. Feng 32762, 32825 (both in IFSBH). Hebei: Lai-shui Co., K.-M. Liou 2231, 2283 (both in PE); Wei Co., H.-W. Kung 1314 (PE), Q.-W. Wang 1037-b (MO); Xing-long Co., J.-X. Ji 1038, 1265 (both in IFSBH). Heilongjiang: Ning-an Co., C. Gao & G.-C. Chang 9017 (IFSBH); Wuying, Vitt 34952 (ALTA, MO); Xiao Xing An Ling (Mt.), T. Cao 40305 (IFSBH); Yichun City, C. Gao 226, 228 (both in IFSBH). Henan: Anyang City, Xinxiang Teachers College 1055 (PE); Lingbao City, H.-J. Yu 5854 (PE); Luan-chuan Co., D.-Z. Tu 3076 (PE); Xi-chuan Co., Xinxiang Teachers College 6115, 6126 (both in PE); Xi-xia Co., J.-X. Luo 184, 242 (both in PE); Xin-yang Co., J.-X. Luo 98 (MO, PE); Yu-bei Co., D.-Z. Tu 1100, 1542 (both in PE); Zhen-ping Co., J.-X. Luo 134 (MO, PE). Hubei: Li-chuan Co., L.-J. Bi 082 (IFSBH); Mt. Shennongjia, 1980 Sino-Amer. Exped. Team 275 (MO, NY), P.-C. Wu 278, 457 (both in MO), G.-C. Zhang & E.-Z. Bai 33906 (IFSBH, MO); Wu-feng Co., Y.-S. Fu 5-035 (IFSBH). Hunan: Da-yong Co., D.-K. Li 18135 (SHM); Sang-zhi Co., D.-K. Li 1855 (SHM), T. Cao & X. Fu 42877 (IFSBH). Jilin: Jiu-tai Co., C. Gao 1745 (IFSBH); Mt. Changbai, T. Cao & B.-Y. Yan 356, Y.-H. Wu 1103 (both in IFSBH), C. Gao 13345 (MO). Liaoning: Beiing City, Y.-H. Wu 1231, 1232 (both in IFSBH); Ben-xi Co., C. Gao 7149 (MO), C. Gao & G.-C. Chang 7090, C. Gao & G. Liu 55 (both in IFSBH); Kuan-dian Co., T. Cao & S.-Z. Wang 38920, Y.-H. Wu 1221 (both in IFSBH). Nei Mongol: Da Xing An Ling (Mt.), H.-F. Xie 104, C. Gao 3463 (both in IFSBH); Mt. Daqing, Z.-G. Tong 845 (MO, PE); Mt. Helan, Z.-G. Tong 1095 (PE), 1249 (as C. longicosatatum, HIMC, IFSBH, PE); Mt. Wula, L.-B. Xue 014 (NY). Qinghai: Cheng-duo Co., B. C. Tan 95-122 (PE), 95-1679, 95-1691 (both in MO); Gong-he Co., F.-G. Lu s.n. (IFSBH); He-nan Co., Long 26978, 27045 (both in E); Hu-zhu Co., Long 27279 (E); Ma-duo Co., Long 26820, 26838 (both in E); Nang-qian Co., B. C. Tan 95-1140, 95-1664 (both in MO); Xing-hai Co., F.-G. Lu 026 (IFSBH); Ze-ku Co., Long 27081 (E). Shaanxi: Feng Co., M.-X. Zhang 961 (WUK); Hu Co., Giraldi 1544 (NY), 2096 (as Drepanophyllaria robustifolia, BM); Hua-yin Co., W.-Y. Xia & Z.-H. Wang 209 (WUK), M.-X. Zhang 377 (WUK); Mei Co., Giraldi 1452 (NY), 1458 (BM); Mt. Qinling, P.-C. Chen et al. 5, 21 (both in MO, PE); Mt. Taibai , X.-J. Li 478 (MO, PE), Z.-P. Wei 4987 (WUK); Ning-shan Co., J.-Q. Xing 717 (WUK); Shi-quan Co., J.-Q. Xing 8956 (PE); Yun Co., Z.-P. Wei 4804 (WUK); Zhou-zhi Co., Giraldi 1877, 2092 (as Drepanophyllaria cuspidarioides, both in BM). Shanxi: Jingcheng City, S.-Y. Bao 1677 (MO, PE); Li-shan Co., Exped. Team 2276 (PE); Ning-wu Co., C. Gao 30860, W.-H. Wang 51 (both in IFSBH), C. Gao 31189 (MO); Rui-cheng Co., S.-Y. Bao 857 (MO); Tai-gu Co., Anonymous 99 (PE). Sichuan: Ba-tang Co., S. He 31293 (MO); Bao-xing Co., Q. Li 3166, 3226 (both in IFSBH); Cheng-kou Co., Q. Li 5497 (IFSBH); Dao-cheng Co., S. He 31687 (MO, NY); Hong-yuan Co., Redfearn 35158 (MO, NY); Li Co., Allen 6845 (MO), L.-N. Zhao 54 (MO, PE); Liang-shan Co., G.-C. Zhang & T. Cao 21410, Q. Li 1992 (both in IFSBH); Ma-er-kang Co., Allen 7007 (MO), Q. Li 1783, 3540 (both in IFSBH), P.-X. Li 55 (PE); Mao-wen Co., T. Cao 43133 (IFSBH), Redfearn 35443 (MO); Mt. Er’lang, C. Gao et al. 17721 (IFSBH); Nan-ping Co., S. He 30017 (MO, PE); Ruo-er-gai Co., S. He 30806 (MO); Song-pan Co., Redfearn 35477, 35491 (both in MO, NY); Tian-quan Co., S. He 32044b (MO); Wan-quan Co., G.-C. Zhang & E.-Z. Bai 34271 (IFSBH); Xiao-jin Co., J.-S. Zhao 296 (IFSBH); Xiang-cheng Co., S. He 31810 (MO); Yaan City, Q. Li 4660, 6186 (both in IFSBH); Ya-jiang Co., S. He 31960 (MO); Yan-bian Co., M.-Z. Wang 20300 (PE); Yan-yuan Co., Handel-Mazzetti 486 (E, NY, S), Q. Li 1698 (IFSBH). Taiwan: Hua-alien Co., Shevock 14436 (CAS, MO); Nan-tou Co., S. He 36204 (MO), S.-X. Lin 4156 (TAI), C.-C. Chuang & Schofield 867 (NY); Ping-dong Co., C.-C. Chuang 1500 (MO, NY). Xinjiang: Bur-qin Co., Q.-T. Jiang 420 (MO, PE); Ce-le Co., Mamtimin 9600074 (HBNU); Fu-kang Co., J.-C. Zhao 03220, J.-C. Zhao & R.-L. Dang 3200 (both in IFSBH); Hami City, Exped. Team 13 (PE); He-jing Co., S. He 951139 (MO); Ku-che Co., S. He 951241 (MO); Ni-le-ke Co., S. He 951131 (MO), J.-C. Zhao & J. Wang 04062 (IFSBH); Qing-he Co., R.-C. Qin 1409 (PE); Ürümqi City, S. He 951073 (MO), J.-C. Zhao s.n. (HBNU); Yu-tian Co., Mamtimin 9600219 (IFSBH); Zhao-su Co., J.-C. Zhao 3993 (IFSBH). Xizang: Ban-ge Co., K.-Y. Lang 1309 (MO, PE); Bo-mi Co., G.-C. Zhang & J.-Y. Feng 15158 (IFSBH); Cha-yu Co., Z.-C. Ni 1 (PE), S.-G. Wu 1071 (HKAS); Chang-du Co., M. Zang 5294 (HKAS); Cuo-na Co., S.-K. Chen 5105 (HKAS); Kang-ma Co., Exped. Team 7597 (PE), 38481 (HKAS); Ji-long Co., K.-Y. Lang 1191 (PE), 1317 (IFSBH); Lin-zhi Co., Z.-X. Tang 3814 (HKAS); Mang-kang Co., L.-Q. Li 76026 (MO, PE), Long 23995 (E); Mi-lin Co., Exped. Team 7631 (PE); Mo-tuo Co., Y.-G. Su 1060 (HKAS, MO), S.-K. Chen 5076 (HKAS); Nyalam Co., K.-Y. Lang 1166 (MO), S.-K. Chen 102, 105 (both in HKAS); Pu-lan Co., Z.-C. Ni 76-17 (MO, PE); Ri-dong Co., M. Zang 5965, 6240 (both in HKAS); Ri-tu Co., Z.-C. Ni 76-51 (MO, PE); Ya-dong Co., M. Zang 3794 (HKAS); Zanda Co., X.-S. Zhang 5 (MO, PE). Yunnan: Bao-shan Co., J.-X. Luo & M.-Z. Wang 811744, 811784 (both in PE); Chu-xiong Co., Redfearn & S. He 1765 (MO, NY); Da-li Co., Redfearn et al. 1160 (MO, NY); De-qing Co., Long 23611, 23715 (both in E); Fu-gong Co., Shevock 25430 (CAS, MO); Gong-shan Co., Shevock 22996 (CAS, MO); Kunming City, Long 33512 (MO), Redfearn & S. He 2234 (MO, NY), W.-M. Zhu 3 (HKAS); Li-jiang Co., Long 18770, 18995 (both in E); Lu-quan Co., W.-M. Zhu 64013 (HKAS); Lu-shui Co., Shevock 26903 (CAS, MO); Meng-ku Co., Handel-Mazzetti s.n. (E, S); Shangri-la Co., X.-J. Li 4658 (HKAS), Shevock 27377 (CAS, MO); Wei-shan Co., Redfearn & S. He 1237 (MO, NY); Yang-bi Co., Redfearn et al. 113 (MO, NY).

Notes     (Last Modified On 3/5/2009)
general taxon notes:


Cratoneuron filicinum var. filicinum under different habitats is exceedingly polymorphic, especially in the morphology of leaf shapes and leaf cells.


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1. Cratoneuron filicinum (Hedw.) Spruce   牛角藓   niu jiao xian
Cat. Musc. 21. 1867. Amblystegium filicinum (Hedw.) De Not., Comment. Soc. Crittog. Ital. 2: 291. 1867. Hypnum filicinum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 285. 1801. Type: Austria.
Amblystegium campyliopsis Dixon, Hong Kong Naturalist, Suppl. 2: 24. f. 14. 1933. Type: China. Gansu province, Licent 250 (holotype BM).
Amblystegium cuspidarioides (Müll. Hal.) Broth. in Levier, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 13: 247. 1906. Drepanocladus cuspidarioides (Müll. Hal.) Broth. ex Paris, Coll. Nom. Broth. 10: 1909. Drepanophyllaria cuspidarioides Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 5: 204. 1898. Type: China. Shaanxi (Schen-si), Liu-hua-zae, Giraldi 2092 (isotype BM).
Amblystegium elegantifolium (Müll. Hal.) Broth. in Levier, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 13: 247. 1906. Drepanophyllaria elegantifolia Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 3: 114. 1896. Type: China. Shaanxi, Aug. 1894, Giraldi s.n.
Amblystegium fallax (Brid.) Milde, Bryol. Siles. 325. 1869. Cratoneuron filicinum var. fallax (Brid.) G. Roth, Eur. Laubm. 2: 532. 1904. Hypnum fallax Brid., Muscol. Recent. 2(2): 66. 1801.
Amblystegium nivicalyx (Müll. Hal.) Broth. ex Levier, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 13: 247. 1906. Drepanophyllaria nivicalyx Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 3: 115. 1896. Type: China. Shaanxi, Giraldi s.n.
Amblystegium relaxum Cardot & Thér. in Thér., Bull. Acad. Int. Géogr. Bot. 3 sér., 15: 40. 1906. Type: China. Beijing (Pekin), May 1889, Bodinier s.n. (holotype PC).
Amblystegium robustifolium (Müll. Hal.) Broth. ex Levier, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 13: 247. 1906. Drepanophyllaria robustifolia Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 5: 203. 1898. Type: China. Shaanxi (Schen-si), Giraldi 1877, 2096 (syntypes BM).
Amblystegium tenax fo. spinifolium (Schimp.) Demaret, Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat 17: 363. 1945. Hygroamblystegium tenax var. spinifolium (Schimp.) Jenn., Man. Mosses W. Pennsylvania 278. 1913. Amblystegium irriguum var. spinifolium Schimp., Syn. Musc. Eur. (ed. 2) 713. 1876.
Cratoneuron formosanum Broth., Ann. Bryol. 1: 22. 1928. Type: China. Taiwan, Taityu, Onoe, Suzuki 2894.
Cratoneuron formosicum Broth. ex Sakurai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 55: 210. 1941, hom. illeg.
Cratoneuron longicostatum X.-L. Bai, Fl. Bryophyt. Intramongol. 385. 1997. Type: China. Nei Mongol, Mt. Helan, Z.-G. Tong 1249 (holotype HIMC; isotype IFSBH).
Cratoneuron taihangense J.-C. Zhao, X.-Q. Li & L.-F. Han, J. Hebei Normal Univ. (Nat. Sci.) 25(1): 104. 2001. Type: China. Hebei, Pingshan Co., Qiandadi Mt., ca. 1450 m, 29 Feb. 2000, X.-Q. Li 20239 (isotype NY).
Hygroamblystegium ramulosum Dixon in Yang, Sci. Rep. Natl. Tsing Hua Univ., Ser. B, Biol. Sci. 2: 129. 1936, nom. nud.
Hypnum sinensimolluscum var. tenuius Müll. Hal. in Levier, Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 13: 266. 1906, nom. nud.
Thuidium leptopteris (Müll. Hal.) Paris, Index Bryol. 1284. 1898. Haplocladium leptopteris Müll. Hal., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 3: 116. 1896. Type: China. Shaanxi, Giraldi s.n.
1a. Cratoneuron filicinum var. filicinum   牛角藓原变种   niu jiao xian yuan bian zhong  
Plants slender, medium-sized or large, green or yellowish green. Stems erect or erect-ascending, pinnately branched, sometimes irregularly pinnately branched, brownish rhizoids always present; paraphyllia foliose. Stem leaves erect or spreading, slightly curved, broadly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 0.8–1.2 mm × 0.4–0.8 mm, abruptly acuminate above; margins usually serrulate; costae thick, ending in the leaf apex; median leaf cells oblong-rhomboidal, 20–35 µm × 4–7 µm, thin-walled; alar cells distinctly differentiated, strongly convex, extending close to costa at leaf base. Dioicous. Setae 30–40 mm long, reddish brown; capsules oblong-ellipsoidal to cylindrical, reddish brown. Spores 15–18 mm in diameter, finely papillose.


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