3. Ulota japonica (Sull. & Lesq.) Mitt. 东亚卷叶藓 dong ya juan ye xian
Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 3: 162. 1891. Orthotrichum japonicum Sull. & Lesq., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 4: 277. 1859. Type: Japan (Hakodadi).
Ulota nipponensis Besch., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 7, 17: 339. 1893.
Plants small, dark green to brownish green, nearly black below, yellowish green above, in loose tufts. Stems erect, 0.5–1.0 cm long, branched. Leaves flexuose, not distinctly crisped when dry, spreading when moist, narrowly lanceolate, 1.5–2.6 mm long, acuminate to acute at the apex, indistinctly vaginate, not concave, slightly plicate at the base; lower margins slightly inflexed; costae strong, subpercurrent to percurrent; upper and median leaf cells subquadrate, irregularly rounded-quadrate, ca. 10 µm wide, thick-walled, indistinctly papillose with 2 low papillae per cell on both surfaces; basal juxtacostal cells rectangular or elongate-rectangular, 35–45 µm × 5–8 µm, smooth, thinner-walled; basal marginal cells differentiated in 7–10 rows of hyaline, quadrate to shortly rectangular cells, transversely thick-walled, forming a distinct border. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves hardly differentiated, ca. 2 mm long. Setae ca. 2 mm long; capsules shortly exserted, subcylindrical when moist, ca. 1.5 mm long, strongly constricted below the mouth, 8-ribbed when dry, with an indistinct neck; exothecial cells clearly differentiated into bands; stomata superficial; opercula shortly rostrate; peristome double; exostome teeth 16 united in 8 pairs, lanceolate, densely papillose throughout, usually reflexed when dry; endostome segments 8, linear-lanceolate, ca. 2/3 the length of the teeth, hyaline above, smooth on the outer surface, finely papillose on the inner surface. Calyptrae mitrate, sparsely hairy. Spores spherical, 15–23 µm in diameter, brown, finely and densely papillose.