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Published In: Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany 12: 391. 1869. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/23/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 5/5/2013)
country distribution: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
EcoRegions: Montane Forest
elevation: 1000-1500, 1500-2000, 2000-2500, 2500-3000, 3000-3500
substrate: shrubs, treelets and trees
frequency: infrequent

Notes     (Last Modified On 5/5/2013)
Ecology: Montane forest; epiphytic, on branches or trunks of shrubs and treelets. Elevation: 1140-3300 m (Venezuela: 1730-3300 m, Colombia: 1140-3270 m, Ecuador: 1600-2615 m, Peru: 2150-2420 m, Bolivia: 1800-2010 m). Distribution: Central America, West Indies, tropical Andes (disjunct to southern Venezuelan tepuis), southeast Brazil; East Africa.
Ecología: Bosques montanos, epífita comúnmente sobre ramas o troncos de arbustos y arbolillos. Elevación: 1140-3300 m (Venezuela: 1730-3300 m, Colombia: 1140-3270 m, Ecuador: 1600-2615 m, Perú: 2150-2420 m, Bolivia: 1800-2010 m). Distribución: Centroamérica, Indias Occidentales, Andes tropicales (disyunta hasta el sur de los tepuyes Venezolanos), sudeste de Brasil; Este de Africa.


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Plants somewhat large, forming short tufts, olive green to golden-brown. Primary stems creeping, radiculose beneath. Secondary stems and branches erect-spreading, often perpendicular to substrate; in cross-section outer 4-5 rows of cells small, thick-walled, inner cells larger, central strand absent. Stem leaves complanate, lateral leaves somewhat asymmetric and undulate, obovate, 3-4 mm long, to 2 mm wide, apex rounded and apiculate, base asymmetric, slightly decurrent; margins plane, crenulate-dentate; costae single, strong, subpercurrent to percurrent, in cross-section cells undifferentiated, thick-walled; apical cells linear-fusiform, to 30 µm long, porose; median cells stellate, 10-12 µm in diameter, smooth to bulging; basal cells fusiform to irregularly rectangular and porose; insertion cells golden brown, marginal cells distally narrow and smaller; median leaves (dorsal and ventral) similar, symmetrical, oval to obovate, to 2.5 mm long. Branch leaves smaller, gradually attenuated distally, leaves reduced in size (to 1 mm long). Gemmae nearly always present at distal branch tips in axial of highly reduced leaves, gemmae short-cylindrical to clavate on axillary stalks. Perichaetia lateral; in axils of lateral secondary stem leaves; leaves elongate, ovate-lanceolate or-subulate, to 2.5 mm long, costae single, laminal cells strongly porose. Dioicous. Setae erect, short, ca. 2 mm long, smooth to weakly papillose. Capsules erect, urn ovoid, ca. 2 mm long; exothecial cells ± hexagonal, rather thick-walled; opercula rostrate, ca. 0.8-0.9 mm long; peristome double, exostome teeth 16, to at least 310 µm long, cross-striate, appearing furrowed with a hyaline border; endostome basal membrane rather low, segments 16, keeled and perforate, cilia absent or rudimentary. Calyptrae mitrate, ca. 1-1.2 mm long, densely covered by long capillary hairs that extend beyond calyptra, weakly plicate, base lobed. Spores spherical, 17-22 µm in diameter, papillose-granulose.


Plantas algo grandes, formando manojos cortos, de color verde oliva hasta pardo-dorado. Tallos primarios reptantes, radiculosos abajo. Tallos secundarios y ramas erecto-extendidas, a menudo perpendiculares al sustrato, hojas complanadas; en corte transversal filas de células externas pequeñas, con paredes gruesas, células internas mayores, sin cordón central. Hojas de los tallos laterales algo asimétricas y onduladas, obovadas, 3-4 mm de largo, ápices redondeados y apiculados, bases asimétricas, escasamente decurrentes; márgenes planos, crenulado-dentados; costa simple, fuerte, subpercurrente hasta percurrente, células apicales lineo-fusiformes, porosas; células mediales estrelladas, lisas hasta abultadas; células basales fusiformes hasta irregularmente rectangulares y porosas; células de la inserción pardo-doradas, células del margen distalmente angostas y menores; hojas mediales (dorsales y ventrales) similares, simétricas, ovales hasta obovadas, hasta 2.5 mm de largo. Hojas de las ramas menores, ápices de las ramas gradualmente atenuados, hojas de tamaño reducido (1 mm de largo). Yemas casi siempre en las axilas de hojas muy reducidas en los extremos de las ramas, yemas corto-cilíndricas hasta claviformes sobre pedúnculos axilares. Periquecios laterales; en axilas de hojas laterales de los tallos secundarios; hojas alargadas, ovado-lanceoladas o -subuladas, hasta 2.5 mm de largo, costa simple, células de la lámina marcadamente porosas. Dioicas. Setas erectas, cortas, ca. 2 mm de largo, lisas hasta débilmente papilosas. Cápsulas erectas, urna ovoide, ca. 2 mm de largo; células exoteciales ± hexagonales, con paredes muy gruesas; opérculo rostrado, peristoma doble, exostoma con 16 dientes, estrías cruzadas, de apariencia acanalada con borde hialino; membrana basal del endostoma bastante baja, con 16 segmentos, carinados y perforados, cilios ausentes o rudimentarios. Caliptra mitrada, densamente cubierta por pelos largos capilares que se extienden más allá de la caliptra, débilmente plegada, base lobada. Esporas esféricas, papiloso-granulosas.



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