LEMBOPHYLLACEAE Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1(3): 863. 1906.
Plants mostly medium sized to rather large, forming loose mats or wefts, usually glossy green, portions often black. Stems pendent to creeping or spreading, irregularly to regularly pinnately branched; flagellate branches frequent; in cross-section outer 3-6 rows of cells small, thick-walled, inner cells thin- to somewhat thick-walled, central strand present or more often absent; pseudoparaphyllia absent; rhizoids often clustered beneath primary stems. Leaves often differentiated between stem and branch, erect to erect-spreading, broadly ovate, strongly concave, apex short acute to more commonly acuminate, base rounded or auriculate; costae single and weak or absent; median cells linear, smooth, often porose; basal cells often porose; insertion cells often golden-yellow; alar region weakly to strongly differentiated. Dioicous. Perichaetia lateral; leaves often differentiated. Setae short to somewhat elongate, smooth. Capsules immersed to exserted, erect to inclined, urn ovoid to broadly cylindrical; stomata usually present, at urn base, superficial; opercula rostrate; peristome double, exostome teeth 16, papillose; endostome basal membrane low to somewhat high, segments 16, often keeled and perforate, lightly papillose, cilia absent or rudimentary. Calyptrae mitrate, base not lobed, smooth, naked or hairy. Spores usually spherical, papillose.