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Hypnaceae Schimp. Search in NYBG Virtual Herbarium Decrease font Increase font Restore font
 

Published In: Corollarium Bryologiae Europaeae 113. 1856. (Coroll. Bryol. Eur.) Name publication detail
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/20/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 4/3/2009)
General Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 4/3/2009)
general taxon notes:

 

The Hypnaceae are one of the largest families in pleurocarpous mosses, consisting of some 30 genera in the world. The distinctive features of the family include a perfect double peristome, usually homomallous or distinctly falcate-secund leaves, shortly double costate or ecostate, and generally linear leaf cells. The family is generally classified into three subfamilies: Ctenidioideae,Hypnoideae, and Pylaisioideae as recognized by Brotherus (1925). Species of this family occur worldwide on various habitats. China has representatives of all three subfamilies. For the Chinese moss flora, the classification of genera into subfamilies generally followed that of P.-C. Chen et al. (1978) as presented below. The following genera are in addition to P.-C. Chen’s classification: Breidleria Loesk., Bryocrumia Anders., Ectropotheciella Fleisch., Eurohypnum Ando, Giraldiella C. Müll., Isopterygiopsis Iwats., Pseudotaxiphyllum Iwats., and Stereodontopsis Williams. A total of 27 genera of the Hypnaceae are treated for the Chinese flora.
 
 
Key to subfamilies
 
1. Stem and branch leaves homogeneous or somewhat differentiated and mostly symmetrical.......................... 2
1. Stem and branch leaves heterogeneous and mostly asymmetrical............................................. I. Ctenidioideae
2. Costae short, double, often inconspicuous; leaf cells linear or long rhomboidal; alar cells not well-differentiated or few, somewhat enlarged; capsules usually curved or arcuate, mostly inclined or cernuous; peristome and cilia usually well developed............................................................... II. Hypnoideae
2. Costae double, short, sometimes inconspicuous; leaf cells rhomboidal or linear; alar cells well-differentiated, numerous, often consisting of small cells; capsules mostly symmetrical, erect; peristome and cilia usually not very well developed or with rudimentary cilia..................................... III. Pylaisioideae
 
 
I.   Ctenidioideae: Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt., Hyocomium Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G., Leiodontium Broth., Microctenidium Fleisch., and Ptilium De Not.
II. Hypnoideae: Breidleria Loesk., Bryocrumia Anders., Callicladium Crum, Ectropotheciella Fleisch., Ectropothecium Mitt., Eurohypnum Ando, Gollania Broth., Herzogiella Broth., Hondaella Dix. & Sak., Hypnum Hedw., Isopterygiopsis Iwats., Isopterygium Mitt., Pseudostereodon (Broth.) Fleisch., Pseudotaxiphyllum Iwats., Stereodontopsis Williams, Taxiphyllum Fleisch., Trachythecium Fleisch., and Vesicularia (C. Müll.) C. Müll.
III. Pylaisioideae: Giraldiella C. Müll., Homomallium (Schimp.) Loesk., Platygyrium Schimp. in B.S.G., and Pylaisia Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G.

 

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Hypnaceae
灰藓科  hui xian ke
by Zhang Man-Xiang and Si He
 
 
Plants small, slender to robust, green to yellowish green or golden brown, loose or often in densely intermixed patches. Stems usually creeping, or sometimes ascending, irregularly branched to regularly pinnately branched, or sometimes frondose; paraphyllia absent, pseudoparaphyllia usually present; stems in cross section, rounded or elliptic, central strand differentiated or only somewhat differentiated, cortical cells large, with several layers of thick-walled cells. Stem leaves and branch leaves usually similar, sometimes dimorphic, symmetric or asymmetric, leaf shape various, usually oblong-ovate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, slenderly acuminate, sometimes shortly acute, often homomallous, secund or falcate-secund, rarely complanate or plicate; costae double, short, often indistinct; leaf cells usually linear, rarely oblong-hexagonal, smooth or sometimes prorate, rarely papillose; alar cells usually differentiated in a group of quadrate and rectangular or enlarged cells. Dioicous or autoicous. Perichaetia lateral and perichaetial leaves differentiated. Setae elongate, mostly smooth; capsules erect to horizontal, symmetric to somewhat asymmetric, ovoid to cylindrical; annuli often differentiated; opercula conic, usually shortly rostrate; peristome double, rarely single (probably with highly reduced endostome); exostome teeth 16, slenderly lanceolate, yellowish to brownish, bordered, the dorsal plates mostly cross-striolate and papillose below, hyaline and papillose above; the ventral plates smooth, strongly trabeculate; endostome segments 16, lanceolate-subulate, nearly as long as or somewhat shorter than the teeth, keeled, perforate, smooth or papillose; basal membrane usually high; cilia often well developed, nodulose, sometimes lacking. Calyptrae cucullate, usually smooth. Spores often small, yellowish or yellowish brown, smooth or papillose.
 

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1. Stem and branch leaves homogeneous or slightly differentiated, mostly symmetrical........................2
1. Stem and branch leaves heterogeneous, mostly asymmetrical.......................................................23
2. Leaves rounded or broadly obtuse at apex...................................................................2. Bryocrumia
2. Leaves acute to acuminate at apex................................................................................................3
3. Leaf cells rhomboidal to elongate-rhomboidal or somewhat linear; alar cells well differentiated, consisting of numerous small cells; capsules mostly symmetrical; peristome usually reduced, rudimentary; cilia not well developed, often rudimentary............................................................................................................4
3. Leaf cells usually linear, sometimes linear-rhomboidal; alar cells not well differentiated or consisting of only a few inflated cells; capsules usually curved or arcuate, asymmetric; peristome usually well developed, cilia well developed............................................................................................................................ 9
4. Capsules erect..................................................................................................................5
4. Capsules inclined to horizontal...........................................................................................7
5. Basal membrane of endostome high; cilia usually well developed; leafy branches round to obtuse at tips......
..............................................................................................................................8. Giraldiella
5. Basal membrane of endostome very low or nearly completely dissected; cilia none or rudimentary; leafy branches not round to obtuse at tips..............................................................................................6
6. Plants dioicous; branches usually straight, often with brood bodies in leaf axils; alar cells quadrate, in only a few rows......................................................................................................................... 19. Platygyrium
6. Plants autoicous; branches usually curved, without brood bodies; alar cells quadrate, in numerous rows....
............................................................................................................................23. Pylaisia
7. Plants large to fairly robust, usually in wet habitats; alar cells enlarged, in a sizeable group...... 1. Breidleria
7. Plants usually small to medium-sized, in relatively dry habitats; alar cells quadrate or somewhat inflated in a small group................................................................................................................................8
8. Plants rigid, thick; upper leaf margins serrulate; costa short, separate at base or absent..... 7. Eurohypnum
8. Plants mostly soft, slender or delicate; upper leaf margins entire or only serrulate near apex; costa short, double, but not separated at base or sometimes absent ..................................................... 11. Homomallium
9. Stems and branches usually julaceous to subjulaceous, sometimes leaves appearing to be arranged in two-ranks, but leafy branches never complanate................................................................................10
9. Stems and branches more or less complanately foliate.............................................................15
10. Capsules erect; peristome single, dorsal surface of the teeth without zigzag median line; flagelliferous branchlets usually present, numerous; leaves usually deeply plicate........................... 24. Stereodontopsis
10. Capsules inclined or suberect; peristome double, dorsal surface of the teeth with zigzag median line; flagelliferous branchlets absent; leaves not deeply plicate.................................................................11
11. Plants frondose-pinnately branched.........................................................................................12
11. Plants distinctly irregularly branched........................................................................................13
12. Paraphyllia sometimes present on stems and branches; leaf margins entire........... 20. Pseudostereodon
12. Paraphyllia absent; leaf margins serrate, rarely subentire......................................14. Hypnum
13. Capsules curved and inclined; pseudoparaphyllia absent; leaf margins serrulate; alar cells scarcely differentiated or differentiated into a few, hyaline, thin-walled, decurrent cells.................... 10. Herzogiella
13. Capsules erect or suberect; pseudoparaphyllia present, foliose; leaf margins entire; alar cells differentiated into a well marked group of quadrate, moderately thick-walled cells.................................... 14
14. Leaves strongly asymmetric, somewhat complanate and keeled; capsules asymmetric, suberect from the base, but curved at the mouth........................................................................................... 3. Callicladium
14. Leaves more or less symmetric, somewhat plicate; capsules symmetric, erect................ 12. Hondaella
15. Leaf cells linear..................................................................................................................... 16
15. Leaf cells oblong-hexagonal to elongate-rhomboidal, but not linear..............................................20
16. Alar cells differentiated, in a group of 1–3 inflated cells; capsules conspicuously small.... 6. Ectropothecium
16. Alar cells not or scarcely differentiated; capsules not significantly small.............................................. 17
17. Capsules almost erect, symmetric; leaves distinctly regularly bi-seriate; epidermal cells of stems large, thin-walled.............................................................................................................15. Isopterygiopsis
17. Capsules more or less inclined, curved and asymmetric; leaves not clearly bi-seriate; epidermal cells of stems small, thick-walled.........................................................................................................18
18. Pseudoparaphyllia absent; brood bodies often present.......................................... 21. Pseudotaxiphyllum
18. Pseudoparaphyllia present; brood bodies present or lacking....................................................19
19. Pseudoparaphyllia filamentous; brood bodies fusiform.............................................16. Isopterygium
19. Pseudoparaphyllia foliose; brood bodies absent.......................................................25. Taxiphyllum
20. Leaf cells oblong-rhombic to rhomboidal, thin-walled, spinosely papillose.............. 5. Ectropotheciella
20. Leaf cells oblong-hexagonal to elongate-rhomboidal, smooth or prorate............................................... 21
21. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, slenderly acuminate; leaf margins entire; costae inconspicuous; capsules spinosely papillose..................................................................................................26. Trachythecium
21. Leaves oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, shortly acuminate to acute; costae double, usually distinct; capsules smooth.....................................................................................................................22
22. Stems with pseudoparaphyllia; ventral leaves not differentiated; leaf cells elongate-rhomboidal, usually papillose at the front corner, alar cells rather differentiated..................................................... 9. Gollania
22. Stems without pseudoparaphyllia; ventral leaves clearly differentiated, smaller than dorsal and lateral leaves; leaf cells short and broad, lax, oblong-hexagonal to broadly oblong-rhomboidal, smooth; alar cells not differentiated............................................................................................................ 27. Vesicularia
23. Plants rather robust, large, densely pinnately branched; leaves deeply plicate; leaf margins dentate only in the upper part.............................................................................................................22. Ptilium
23. Plants delicate, remotely pinnately branched; leaves smooth, leaf margins dentate throughout..........24
24. Costae conspicuous; leaf cells linear, papillose or distinctly prorate; alar cells differentiated............ 25
24. Costae absent; leaf cells elongate-hexagonal or long-rhomboidal, smooth; alar cells not differentiated.....26
25. Leaves usually secund; alar cells usually inflated......................................................4. Ctenidium
25. Leaves appressed or reflexed, not secund; alar cells not inflated...............................13. Hyocomium
26. Plants pinnately branched; stem leaves reflexed; peristome teeth single layer, endostome teeth not developed..............................................................................................................18.Microctenidium
26. Plants irregularly branched; leaves densely imbricate; peristome teeth two layers, endostome teeth developed...............................................................................................................17. Leiodontium
 
 
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