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Thuidiaceae Schimp. Search in NYBG Virtual Herbarium Decrease font Increase font Restore font
 

Published In: Synopsis Muscorum Europaeorum 493. 1860. (Syn. Musc. Eur.) Name publication detail
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/20/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 3/30/2009)
General Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 3/30/2009)
general taxon notes:

 

The Thuidiaceae, one of the large moss families, are widely distributed on every continent except Antarctica from tropical rain forests to temperate coniferous forests. Some of the genera in the Thuidiaceae are East Asiatic endemics, such as Hylocomiopsis endemic to Japan and Thuidiopsis to Japan and Korea. Worldwide, most of the Thuidiaceae occur in Asia, Central and South America, and Oceania. The species of this family grow in various places and frequently occur under grasses or on rock surfaces, rotten logs, tree trunks, and forest ground in large mats with other mosses. They can be found from sea level to above 4000 m. Many species of the family play an important role in protecting against water and soil erosion in alpine coniferous forests.
 
The distinct features of the Thuidiaceae include the Hypnum-type peristome, the pinnately branched stems often bearing paraphyllia, and papillose leaf cells. Brotherus’ (1925) classification and systematic arrangement of the family between the Leskeaceae and Amblystegiaceae are generally accepted among bryologists. However, some bryologists have different opinions on the classification. Crum and Anderson (1981) removed the primitive genera Haplohymenium, Anomodon, and Herpetineuron from Thuidiaceae to Leskeaceae and transferred Pseudoleskeella and Pseudoleskea of the Leskeaceae and Myurella of the Theliaceae to Thuidiaceae. Generally, the evolutionary relationships among genera of the Thuidiaceae are well established; nonetheless, there are some genetic differences in this family that reflect its systematic relationship with related families.
 
Brotherus (1925) divided the Thuidiaceae into four subfamilies: Heterocladioideae, Anomodontoideae, Thuidioideae, and Helodioideae. This classification reflects not only infra-family relationships, but also systematic relationships with related families such as the Leskeaceae. We move Haplocladium from the Anomodontoideae to Thuidioideae considering their appearance, branching forms, branch apices, leaf cells, and paraphyllia types. The remaining genera of the Anomodontoideae, with Anomodon, Haplohymenium, Herpetineuron, and Miyabea, are moved from the Thuidiaceae to the Anomodontaceae. Abietinella is transferred to Helodioideae. Both Crum and Anderson (1981) and Noguchi (1991) treated Abietinella and Rauiella in Thuidium; however, we maintain them separate from Thuidium based on the differences in habit and leaf morphology. We agree with Buck and Crum (1990) in elevating the subgenus Microthuidium Limpr. of Thuidium to generic rank as Cyrto-hypnum. In this study, 14 genera in the Thuidiaceae are treated. Touw (2001a) redefined the Thuidiaceae and presented a realignment of taxa traditionally accommodated in Thuidium; however, his opinions appeared too late to be taken into consideration for our treatment.
 
The systematic arrangement of Chinese Thuidiaceae:
Subfamily I. Heterocladioideae: Heterocladium Schimp. in B. S. G., Leptocladium Broth., and Leptopterigynandrum C. Müll.
Subfamily II. Thuidioideae: Boulaya Card., Claopodium (Lesq. & James) Ren. & Card., Cyrto-hypnum (Hampe) Hampe, Haplocladium (C. Müll.) C. Müll., Pelekium Mitt., RauiellaThuidium B. S. G. Reim., and
Subfamily III. Helodioideae: Abietinella C. Müll., Actinothuidium (Besch.) Broth., Bryonoguchia Iwats. & Inoue, and Helodium (Sull.) Warnst.
Key to the subfamilies
 
1. Plants delicate; leaf costae double, short or absent........................................ Subfamily 1. Heterocladioideae
1. Plants rather robust; leaf costa single, usually ending above the middle of leaf, rarely excurrent.................. 2
2. Plants usually simple or pinnately branched, rather robust; mostly growing in swampy or moist habitats.
....................................................................................................................................... Subfamily 3. Helodioideae
2. Plants 1–3 pinnately branched, rather small to medium-sized; often growing in moist, sometimes dry habitats
 .................................................................................................................................. Subfamily 2. Thuidioideae
 
 
The history of studying Chinese Thuidiaceae started at the beginning of this century with most of the publications involving materials from one mountain or a localized region. Cardot and Thériot (1904) examined the specimens collected by Elm Bodinier and L. Martin in northern Guizhou, and published Thuidium japonicum Dozy & Molk. and T. pycnothallum C. Müll. Later, Par. (1909) published a new species, Anomodon rotundatus Par. & Broth., and reported Thuidium aciculum Broth. based on Courtois and Henry’s collection from Qiudong, Jiangsu province. Brotherus (1929) reported 10 genera and 28 species of Chinese Thuidiaceae from southwestern China. Among them Leptocladium Broth. was described as a new genus; six new species of Leptopterigynandrum C. Müll., Claopodium (Lesq. & Jam.) Ren. & Card., and Haplocladium (C. Müll.) C. Müll. were described. This was the first comprehensive treatment concerning Chinese Thuidiaceae. Reimers (1931) published the book entitled “Beiträge zur Mossflora China, I” after examining the collections of R.-C. Ching, S.-S. Sin, K.-K. Wang, and P. Klautke et al. from Mt. Magan, Zhejiang province, and Mt. Yao, Guangxi province. Six species of Thuidium were reported. Bartram (1935) reported Claopodium assurgens (Sull. & Lesq.) Card. and Haplocladium capillatum (Mitt.) Reim. based on S.-Y. Cheo’s collections from Guangxi and H. H. Chung’s collections from Fujian (Fukien) provinces. Although C.-W. Wang (1935) published a list of 1064 Chinese mosses from 18 provinces, he included only a few genera and species of the Thuidiaceae. Hylocomiopsis ovicarpa (Besch.) Card. was reported from Jilin province by Koponen et al. (1983). We are unable to confirm the specimen at this time. Touw (2001b) appeared too late to be considered for our study.

 

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Thuidiaceae
羽藓科 yu-xian ke
by Wu Peng-cheng, Wang Mei-zhi, and Zhong Ben-gu
 
Plants small to robust, mostly dark green, yellowish green or brownish green, dull, rigid when dry, often in small mats or thick mats after years. Stems creeping or ascending above, irregularly branched or regularly pinnately, bipinnately or tripinnately branched; central strand present or absent; paraphyllia often present, single or branched, usually numerous. Stem leaves and branch leaves often differentiated; leaves arranged in several rows, appressed or usually imbricate when dry, erect-spreading when moist, ovate, widely ovate or ovate-triangular, acuminate or filiform above; leaf margin entire, finely serrulate or papillose; costa mostly single, usually reaching 2/3 the leaf length or excurrent, rarely short, weak, forked or inconspicuous; leaf cells mostly hexagonal or rounded hexagonal, thick-walled, mostly papillose; basal cells longer and pitted; marginal leaf cells nearly quadrate. Autoicous or dioicous. Perichaetia laterally growing on stems; perichaetial leaves usually ovate-lanceolate. Setae slender, light reddish when old, smooth or densely papillose; capsules declinate, asymmetrical, smooth; stomata rare, at the base of capsules or lacking; annuli usually present; opercula conical, mostly rostrate; peristome double; exostome teeth 16, lanceolate, light yellowish or yellowish brown, pale above, usually transversely striolate in the low parts, papillose in the upper parts, borders differentiated; endostome segments narrowly lanceolate, pale, papillose; basal membrane high; cilia often present. Calyptrae cucullate, smooth, rarely with hairs or papillae. Spores spherical.
 

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1. Plants slender; costae double, short, weak or absent......................................................................2
1. Plants rather robust, rarely slender; costa single, mostly up to the upper part of leaf, rarely excurrent........ 4
2. Leaf cells unipapillose or multipapillose........................................................................... 9. Heterocladium
2. Leaf cells smooth ...................................................................................................................3
3. Leaves oblong-ovate; leaf cells nearly linear..........................................................10. Leptocladium
3. Leaves ovate to broadly ovate; leaf cells rhombic to rhomboidal........................... 11. Leptopterigynandrum
4. Plants usually robust; growing in swamps, alpine forests or sunny coniferous forests ............................. 5
4. Plants rather slender; growing in moist forest ground, grasslands, decaying logs or rock surfaces......... 8
5. Plants regularly and pinnately branched, silver-shining; leaves multiplicate; leaf cells smooth .......................
...................................................................................................................2. Actinothuidium
5. Plants remotely and pinnately branched, without shining color; leaves little-plicate; leaf cells papillose..... 6
6. Plants often growing on sunny and sometimes dry forest ground; leaf cell walls strongly thickened, with conspicuous pores ................................................................................................1. Abietinella
6. Plants usually growing on moist forest ground or swamps; leaf cell walls not strongly thickened........... 7
7. Leaf bases widely cordate; leaf cells grossly spinulosely papillose ........................4. Bryonoguchia
7. Leaf bases ovate; leaf cells with a single rounded papilla.......................................8. Helodium
8. Plants 2–3 pinnately branched...............................................................................14. Thuidium
8. Plants irregularly pinnately branched or simple pinnately branched ..................................................... 9
9. Dioicous or autoicous; setae setulose; calyptrae campanulate, covered with long or short hairs, lobed at base...............................................................................................................12. Pelekium
9. Mostly autoicous; setae smooth or papillose; calyptrae usually cucullate, smooth, unlobed at base...............
...................................................................................................................... 6. Cyrto-hypnum
10.  Plants usually brownish green, rigid when dry; paraphyllia abundant on stems..................................11
10. Plants usually yellowish green or dark green, delicate when dry; paraphyllia few on stems................. 12
11. Leaf cells unipapillose; cilia absent .................................................................3. Boulaya
11. Leaf cells unipapillose or multipapillose; cilia 2–3 ............................................13. Rauiella
12. Leaf cells opaque, unipapillose or multipapillose...............................................5. Claopodium
12. Leaf cells rather hyaline, unipapillose.............................................................7. Haplocladium

 

 
 
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