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Published In: Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society 5: 442. 1824. (Mem. Wern. Nat. Hist. Soc.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/27/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 10/7/2017)
Plant Category: Mosses
General Reference:
Tropicos Lookup Reference:

Notes     (Last Modified On 10/7/2017)
The Splachnaceae contain seven genera and about 60 species, widely distributed in boreal and temperate regions, and in the tropics confined to the highlands; six genera and 17 species recorded for the Neotropics. The Splachnaceae is the only family of mosses known to exhibit entomophily, usually involving those species found growing on dung or carrion. It is not known if this is also the case in Neotropics, but would likely involve the genera Splachnum and Tayloria. Although Voitia nivalis Hornsch. has been reported for Bolivia (Churchill et al. 2000), we have seen no collections and the species is provisionally excluded. Voitia is characterized by long acuminate, concave, ovate to ovate-lanceolate leaves, entire, elimbate margins, rather long excurrent costa, and long-rostrate beaked, ovoid-cylindrical, cleistocarpic capsules.
Splachnaceae contiene siete géneros y aproximadamente 60 especies, ampliamente distribuidas en regiones boreales y templadas, en los trópicos está confinada a tierras altas; seis géneros y 17 especies han sido registradas en el Neotrópico. Splachnaceae es la única familia de musgos conocida por presentar entomofilia, generalmente las especies involucradas crecen sobre estiércol o carroña. Se desconoce si este también es el caso de los trópicos, pero los géneros probablemente involucrados son Splachnum y Tayloria. A pesar que Voitia nivalis Hornsch. fue reportada en Bolivia (Churchill et al. 2000), no hemos visto las colecciones y la especie ha sido provisionalmente excluida. Voitia se caracterizado por presentar hojas largo-acuminadas, cóncavas, ovadas hasta ovado-lanceoladas, enteras, márgenes elimbados, costa bastante largo-excurrente y cápsulas largo-rostradas, ovoide-cilíndricas, cleistocárpicas.


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Plants somewhat small to medium sized, gregarious or forming loose to dense tufts, often lustrous green or reddish-brown. Stems erect, few to several branched by innovations; central strand present; radiculose below, occasionally tomentose. Leaves distant to crowded, often distally comose, rather lax, occasionally crispate or not when dry, ovate-lanceolate, oblong or obovate to spathulate, apex acuminate, acute or obtuse, base occasionally decurrent; margins entire or bluntly to sharply serrate or ciliate, limbate or elimbate; costae single, subpercurrent to long excurrent; laminal cells rather large, smooth, median cells rhomboidal, hexagonal or irregularly rectangular; lower and basal cells laxly oblong or rectangular; alar region undifferentiated. Gemmae apparently absent. Autoicous or dioicous. Perichaetia terminal; leaves little differentiated. Setae somewhat short to more commonly elongate, rather stout, smooth to scabrous or papillose. Capsules erect, variously modified, urn usually short cylindrical below, distally ovoid-cylindrical, or base inflated (hypophysis), as long or longer than urn; annuli mostly appearing absent; opercula conic; peristome single, teeth 8 or 16 and united in pairs, erect or reflexed, variously papillose or reticulate. Calyptrae mitrate and lobed at base, or cucullate, naked or sparsely hairy. Spores spherical, smooth or variously papillose.
Plantas algo pequeñas hasta medianas, gregarias o formando manojos laxos hasta densos, a menudo verde brillantes o pardo-rojizos. Tallos erectos, poco a muy ramificado por innovaciones; cordón central presente; radiculosos abajo, ocasionalmente tomentosos. Hojas distantes hasta agregadas, a menudo distalmente comosas, bastante laxas, ocasionalmente crispas o no en seco, ovado-lanceoladas, oblongas u obovadas hasta espatuladas, ápices acuminados, agudos u obtusos, bases ocasionalmente decurrentes; márgenes enteros u obtusamente a nítidamente serrados o ciliados, limbados o elimbados; costa simple, subpercurrente hasta largo-excurrente; células de la lámina bastante grandes, lisas, células mediales rómbicas, hexagonales o irregularmente rectangulares; células inferiores y basales laxamente oblongas o rectangulares; región alar indiferenciada. Yemas ausentes. Autoicas o dioicas. Periquecios terminales; hojas poco diferenciadas. Setas algo cortas hasta más comúnmente alargadas, bastante robustas, lisas hasta escabrosas o papilosas encima. Cápsulas erectas, diversamente modificadas, urna generalmente corto-cilíndrica abajo, distalmente ovoide-cilíndrica, o base inflada (hipófisis), tan largas o más largas que la urna; por lo general aparentemente sin anillo; opérculo cónico; peristoma simple, con 8 o 16 dientes, unidos en pares, erectos o reflexos, diversamente papilosos o reticulados. Caliptra mitrada y lobada en la base, o cuculada, desnuda o escasamente pelosa. Esporas esféricas, lisas o diversamente papilosas.

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1. Leaf margins ciliate or distinctly bordered and darker colored (yellow or golden); peristome teeth 16, united in pairs … Brachymitrium
1. Leaf margins not or weakly bordered and concolorous or ciliate; peristome teeth 8, erect or reflexed … 2.
2. Leaf apices narrowly acuminate … 3.
2. Leaf apices bluntly acute to obtuse or acuminate … Tayloria
3. Leaf margins weakly bordered; hypophysis greatly inflated … Splachnum
3. Leaf margins not differentiated; hypophysis slightly expanded or absent; peristome absent or when present fused initially in 4 pairs distally divided … 4.
4. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate; leaf costa percurrent; peristome present … Tetraplodon
4. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate; costa short excurrent; peristome absent … Voitia
1. Márgenes foliares ciliados o claramente bordeados y de color más oscuro (amarillo o dorado); dientes del peristoma 16, unidos en pares … Brachymitrium
1. Márgenes foliares no o débilmente bordeados y concoloros o ciliados; dientes del peristoma 8, erectos o reflexos … 2.
2. Apices foliares angostamente acuminados … 3.
2. Apices foliares obtusamente agudos a obtusos o acuminados … Tayloria
3. Márgenes foliares débilmente bordeados; hipófisis bastante inflada … Splachnum
3. Márgenes foliares no diferenciados; hipófisis ligeramente expandida o ausente; peristoma ausente o si presente fusionado inicialmente en 4 pares divididos distalmente … 4.
4. Hojas oblongo-lanceoladas a oblanceoladas; costa foliar percurrente; peristoma presente … Tetraplodon
4. Hojas ovadas a ovado-lanceoladas; costa corto excurrente; peristoma ausente … Voitia
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