真藓科 zhen xian ke
by Zhang Da-cheng, Li Xing-jiang, and Si He
Plants perennial, often small to sometimes large, green, yellowish green to reddish, in tufts. Stems erect, short or elongate, simple or branched, sometimes primary stems creeping, usually radiculose at base; central strand usually present. Leaves often soft, often multi-series, rarely 3-ranked; lower leaves smaller, sparse, upper leaves larger, dense, ovate, obovate, oblong-ovate to lanceolate, rarely linear-lanceolate; margins entire or serrulate above, usually bordered by elongated cells; costae single, often strong, reaching the middle or above, or percurrent to excurrent, ending in short awns; cells unistratose, rarely bistratose or tristratose at margins; basal cells usually rectangular, distinctly larger than those cells above the bases; median cells rhomboidal, oblong-hexagonal to narrowly rhomboidal or linear. Gemmae cups terminal. Asexual gemmae sometimes present in leaf axils or mixed with rhizoids. Autoicous or dioicous. Setae slender; capsules erect, suberect to pendulous, usually symmetric or pyriform, rarely spherical; neck clearly differentiated; stomata present; annuli often persistent; opercula conic, often shortly rostrate; peristome double; exostome teeth 16, well developed; endostome segments narrowly lanceolate; basal membrane usually well developed; cilia often developed, sometimes absent; rarely exostome or endostome reduced or absent. Calyptrae cucullate, naked. Spores small, green or yellowish green, smooth or papillose.