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Orthotrichum Hedw. Search in The Plant ListSearch in Index Nominum Genericorum (ING)Search in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in JSTOR Plant ScienceSearch in SEINetSearch in African Plants Database at Geneva Botanical Garden Decrease font Increase font Restore font
 

Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum 162–163. 1801. (Sp. Musc. Frond.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 12/15/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Notes     (Last Modified On 12/13/2011)
general taxon notes:
The genus Orthotrichum consists of some 116 species in the world (Crosby et al. 2000), with most of the species in temperate regions. Lewinsky-Haapasaari (1992, 1993) and Vitt (1971, 1973a) recognized subgeneric divisions in the genus, including subgen. Callistoma (Z. Iwats. & Sharp) Lewinsky, subgen. Exiguifolia Vitt, subgen. Gymnoporus (Braithw.) Limpr., subgen. Orthophyllum Delogne, subgen. Orthotrichum, subgen. Phaneroporum Delogne, and subgen. Pulchella (Schimp.) Vitt. All subgenera are represented in China. There are 31 species and two varieties treated in this flora. Orthotrichum stramineum Hornsch., basically a European species, was newly reported to China from Yunnan Province by Lewinsky-Haapasaari and Long (1996), but we are unable to verify the record. Since the subdivisions of the genus are not dealt with here, we present a key to species for the entire genus.

 

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5. Orthotrichum Hedw.   木灵藓属   mu ling xian shu
Sp. Musc. Frond. 162. 1801. Bryum sect. Orthotrichum (Hedw.) Relhan, Fl. Cantab. (ed. 2) 2: 425. 1802.
Orthomitrium Lewinsky-Haapasaari & Crosby, Novon 6: 2. 1996, fide Allen 2002. 

Plants small to rather large, green, yellowish green, rarely lightly grayish green, or olive-green, blackish brown, growing on tree trunks, shrubs, or rocks in dense or loose tufts. Stems erect, or erect-spreading, usually 0.5–2.0 cm long, sometimes to 6 cm long, rarely to 13 cm long, simple, forked, or much branched, with rhizoids at the base; in cross section, epidermal cells small, reddish brown, thick-walled; a central strand absent. Stem and branch leaves similar, erect and appressed, sometimes contorted, twisted, or crisped, plane, keeled, rarely undulate when dry, spreading when moist, linear, lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, ovate, 0.6–6.0 mm × 0.3–0.9 mm, acuminate, acute, rounded-obtuse, rarely hair-pointed at the apex; margins recurved or reflexed, rarely plane or incurved, often entire; costae single, strong, subpercurrent to percurrent; upper leaf cells rounded-quadrate, or polygonal, moderately thick-walled, with 1–3 simple or branched papillae per cell, rarely smooth, gradually becoming rectangular toward the base, somewhat smaller near the margins; alar cells not differentiated. Gemmae sometimes on leaves or rhizoids, rounded-cylindrical, clavate, rarely spherical. Autoicous, rarely dioicous. Perichaetial leaves not clearly differentiated. Perigonial leaves large, reddish brown. Setae straight or twisted, ca. 15 mm long; capsules immersed, emergent, or long exserted, ovoid or cylindrical, 0.7–3.0 mm long, constricted at the base, smooth, 8- or 16-ribbed, sometimes constricted below the mouth; opercula conic at the base, stoutly rostrate; annuli absent; stomata immersed or superficial, present in middle and lower parts of capsules; peristome double, rarely single or absent; exostome teeth, 8, 16, or absent, papillose or striolate, erect, reflexed, or recurved when dry; endostome segments 8, 16, or absent, broadly triangular, as high as the teeth or shorter. Calyptrae large, mitrate, plicate or smooth, naked or hairy. Spores spherical, 9–45 µm in diameter, papillose.

 
 

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1. Capsule mouth puckered; peristome single or reduced; spores often multicellular.......................................... 2
1. Capsule mouth not puckered; peristome double; spores unicellular................................................................... 3
2. Basal leaf cells strongly thick-walled, porose, nodose; peristome consisting of 16 truncate exostome teeth, roughly ornamented.............................................................................................................. 16.O. jetteae
2. Basal leaf cells thin to moderately thick-walled, not nodose; peristome consisting of 8 highly reduced segments, finely papillose........................................................................................................ 26. O. schofieldii
3. Peristome erect to spreading when dry; plants primarily saxicolous, sometimes epiphytic............................ 4
3. Peristome reflexed to recurved when dry; plants primarily epiphytic, sometimes saxicolous........................ 8
4. Stomata superficial; cell divisions of the inner peristome layer (IPL) symmetric........................................ 5
4. Stomata immersed; cell divisions of the IPL sometimes asymmetric............................................................ 6
5. Capsules shortly exserted, cylindrical, smooth when dry; endostome well developed; calyptrae hairs mostly at base, not reaching to the top......................................................................... 17. O. laevigatum var. japonicum
5. Capsules immersed to emergent, oblong-ovoid, often furrowed when dry; endostome shortly lanceolate, often missing; calyptrae with hairs reaching over the top............................................................. 25. O. rupestre
6. Capsules exserted on long setae................................................................................................ 2. O. anomalum
6. Capsules immersed to emergent, setae very short............................................................................................ 7
7. Leaves bistratose; exostome teeth spreading when dry..................................................................... 12. O. hallii
7. Leaves unistratose; exostome teeth erect when dry................................................................... 15. O. ibukiense
8. Stomata immersed................................................................................................................................................ 9
8. Stomata superficial............................................................................................................................................ 20
9. Endostome segments very well developed, strongly ornamented on both sides, united at the apices to form a perforated dome; cell divisions of the IPL symmetric............................................................. 4. O. callistomum
9. Endostome segments never united at the apices, ornamented or smooth, sometimes absent; cell divisions of the IPL symmetric or secondarily symmetric..................................................................................................... 10
10. Capsules more or less exserted........................................................................................... 13. O. hooglandii
10. Capsules immersed or emergent.................................................................................................................... 11
11. Mature dry capsules abruptly contracted to the setae, with the upper setae hidden....................................... 12
11. Mature dry capsules gradually contracted to the setae, with the entire setae exposed.................................. 14
 12. Leaf margins recurved to revolute almost the entire length; dry capsules ellipsoid; calyptrae naked........
................................................................................................................................................. 24. O. revolutum
 12. Leaf margins plane or only recurved near the base; dry capsules narrow cylindrical; calyptrae with an apical
tuft of hairs...................................................................................................................................................... 13
13. Leaves, particularly the apical ones, strongly crisped when dry, usually keeled only in the central part.........
 ...................................................................................................................................................... 6. O. crispifolium
13. Leaves erect, somewhat undulate and flexuose when dry, often keeled at the base................. 11. O. griffithii
 14. Calyptrae with papillose hairs reaching to the top...................................................................................... 15
 14. Calyptrae naked, rarely with few, simple, smooth hairs............................................................................. 17
15. Endostome segments ornamented on both sides; leaves contorted or twisted when dry..... 9. O. erubescens
15. Endostome segments smooth or only rugose on the outside; leaves erect-appressed to slightly flexuose when dry................
 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 16
 16. Leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate with acute, rounded-acute or obtuse apices; perichaetial leaves obtuse....................
........................................................................................................................................................ 18. O. laxum
 16. Leaves narrow lanceolate with acute or acuminate apices; perichaetial leaves acute..... 30. O. subpumilum
17. Endostome segments ornamented on both sides; leaves flexuose, contorted or twisted when dry............. 18
17. Endostome segments smooth on the outside; leaves erect-appressed or slightly flexuose when dry......... 19
 18. Upper leaf cells 10–14 µm × 7–14 µm; opercula obliquely rostrate; spores 16–22 µm in diameter........
 ............................................................................................................................................. 5. O. consobrinum
 18. Upper leaf cells 5–11 µm × 5–7 µm; opercula conic-apiculate; spores 30–36 µm in diameter...... 20. O. notabile
19. Leaf margins recurved almost the entire length; upper leaf cells 12–17 µm × 9–19 µm; capsules constricted
   below the mouth; exostome teeth finely papillose on the outside, smooth on the inside; spores 14–18 µm in
   diameter......................................................................................................................................... 23. O. pumilum
19. Leaf margins reflexed or recurved only in the central parts; upper leaf cells 7–16 µm × 7–12 µm; capsules not
   constricted below the mouth; exostome teeth roughly ornamented on both sides; spores 30–32 µm in diameter.......................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................... 32. O. vermiferum
 20. Dioicous; leaf margins erect, incurved or involute; leaf apices obtuse or rounded-acute; cells with incrassate,
irregular walls; peristome double or absent; cell divisions of the IPL symmetric; gemmae usually abundant....................................................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................. 21. O. obtusifolium
 20. Autoicous, very rarely dioicous and leaves then acute or acuminate; leaf margins reflexed or revolute, rarely
erect or incurved; cells with more regular walls; peristome double; cell divisions of the IPL symmetric or
asymmetric; gemmae absent or present........................................................................................................ 21
21. Endostome segments hyaline, keeled, delicate, almost as wide as teeth; cell divisions of the IPL symmetric; leaf papillae in C-shape; capsules widest at mouth................................................ 10. O. exiguum
21. Endostome segments not keeled, if delicate then not as wide as teeth; leaf papillae simple or branched, never in C-shape; capsules not widest at mouth............................................................................................... 22
 22. Capsules immersed or emergent.................................................................................................................. 23
 22. Capsules long or short exserted................................................................................................................... 27
23. Capsules smooth when dry; endostome segments broad................................................................................. 24
23. Capsules furrowed at least in the upper half when dry; endostome segments narrow lanceolate................ 25
 24. Endostome of 8 triangular segments.......................................................................................... 8. O. erosum
 24. Endostome of 16 lanceolate segments.................................................................................. 29. O. striatum
25. Exostome teeth coarsely papillose to reticulate papillose; capsules oblong-cylindrical; strongly furrowed when
 dry; spores 15–18 µm; capsules not persistent................................................................................... 1. O. affine
25. Exostome teeth densely and uniformly papillose; capsules ovoid to ovoid-cylindrical; only slightly furrowed
 when dry; spores 20–40 µm; capsules from previous years often present...................................................... 26
 26. Spores 30–40 µm; segments 16, lanceolate; calyptrae with a dense cover of papillose, curly hairs covering it; capsules with up to 8 rings of thick-walled cells below mouth................... 7. O. dasymitrium
 26. Spores 20–30 µm; segments 8, linear-lanceolate to linear; calyptrae with few scattered hairs; capsules with 2–3 rings of thick-walled cells below the mouth..................................................... 19. O. leiolecythis
27. Capsules very long exserted............................................................................................................................... 28
27. Capsules short exserted...................................................................................................................................... 31
 28. Leaves strongly contorted and twisted when dry.............................................................. 31. O. taiwanense
 28. Leaves erect or flexuose when dry............................................................................................................... 29
29. Leaf apices long acuminate, sometimes almost filiform; leaf margins plane or slightly recurved.......... 3. O. brassii
29. Leaf apices acuminate or acute, never filiform; leaf margins recurved at least near the base, rarely plane 30
 30. Spores finely and evenly papillose, usually 25–35(–40) µm in diameter................... 14b. O. hookeri var. granulatum
 30. Spores roughly papillose, usually 35–53 µm in diameter.............................. 14a. O. hookeri var. hookeri
31. Peristome consisting of 16 teeth and segments; stomata restricted to capsule neck........... 22. O. pulchrum
31. Peristome consisting of 8 teeth and segments; stomata on capsule urn......................................................... 32
 32. Exostome teeth cancellate and perforate............................................................................. 27. O. sordidum
 32. Exostome teeth entire.......................................................................................................... 28. O. speciosum

 
 
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