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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 7/16/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 7/16/2013)
Species Paullinia pinnata L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 366. 1753.
Synonym Paullinia hostmanni Steud., Flora 27: 725. 1844. TYPE: Surinam, Hostmann & Kappler 1211 (BM, S). Paullinia pendutifolia Rusby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 7: 291. 1927. TYPE: Bolivia, Pampas near Lake Rogagua, Rusby 1622 (NY).
Description Lianas; older stems 3-ribbed, the younger ones mostly 6-ribbed, glabrous to puberulous; wood composite; tendrils forked. Leaves pinnately 5-foliolate, strigillose on the upper side of the petiole, rachis, and midrib; petiole to 8 cm long; petiole and rachis winged, their margins ciliate; leaflets elliptic, short- acuminate, obtuse at the base, 5-11 cm long, 2.5-4.5 cm wide, with granular punctations throughout on both surfaces and with tufted vein axils beneath, conspicuously crenate throughout most of the margin, the teeth glandular; stipules lanceolate, densely appressed-pubescent, less than 10 mm long, deciduous. Thyrses solitary, 5-25 cm long, axillary or borne at forks of tendrils, spikelike. Flowers white or yellowish, ca. 3 mm wide, wider than long; bracteoles linear- lanceolate, 2.5-4.5 mm long, appressed-pubescent on both surfaces; sepals equal, 5, appressed-pubescent; petals narrowly obovate, 2.5-3 mm long, the anterior scales obovate, fused about half their length to the petal, villous, the deflexed appendage and its villous margin extending more than halfway to the base of the scale, the crest obovate, orange; staminate flowers with the stamens exserted, ca. 2.5-3 mm long, filaments flattened, villous, the pistil short, 3-sided, villous at the apex, the styles glabrous, equalling the ovary; bisexual flowers with the stamens to 2.5 mm long, the ovary ovoid, densely appressed-pubescent to nearly glabrous, the ovary and style together ca. 4 mm long, the style about as long as the ovary, glabrous, 3-branched in the upper third. Capsules broadly clavate, 2-4 cm long, rounded to truncate and abruptly acuminate at the apex, gradually tapered to a long-stipitate base, red, 3-celled, round to bluntly 3-sided in cross- section; seeds 1-3, ellipsoid, 1.5-3 cm long, black, shiny, partly enclosed by a white aril.
Habit Lianas
Note The species is distinguished by its 5-foliolate leaves with winged rachises, winged petioles, barbulate vein axils, and elongate inflorescences. In Panama it is most easily confused with Paullinia sessiliflora var. angustirachis which, though morphologically similar, is ecologically distinct. See that species for a discussion of the differences. It may also be confused vegetatively with P. alata which is similarly pubescent, but that species has glomerate-fasciculate inflorescences. In Panama flowering occurs principally in the rainy season between June and November with fruits maturing mostly from September to January. Flowering also occurs rarely in the dry season.
Distribution ranging throughout tropical America, and it is also known from tropical Africa. In Panama it is known from tropical moist forest and premontane wet forest.
Note The seeds of P. pinnata are used as a fish poison while the stems are used as cordage. According to Duke (1968) the roots are chewed by the Indians of Darien for coughs.
Common barbasco apgi
Specimen BOCAS DEL TORO: Water Valley, von Wedel 883 (GH, MO). Vic. of Chiriqui Lagoon, von Wedel 1154 (GH, MO, US), 1518 (GH, MO). CANAL ZONE: Barro Colorado Island, Aviles 989 (F); Bailey & Bailey 310 (GH); Croat 11111 (MO), 12845 (MO, NY, SCZ); Foster 1059 (DUKE, PMA); Kenoyer 424 (US); Shattuck 989 (MO, US); Wetmore & Wood- worth 879 (A). Gaillard Hwy. at Rio Coco Solo, Croat 14170 (MO). Chagres, Fendler 455 (MO). Coco Solo, Gentry 6282, 6493, 6498 (all MO), 6793 (DUKE, MO, PMA). 2 mi N of Gat-in Locks, Lazor & Blum 5428 (MO). Margarita swamp S of France Field, Maxon & Valentine 7037 (US). Along Rio Trinidad, near sea level, Pittier 4035 (NY, US). Near Fort Randolph, Standley 28624 (US). PANAMA: Cerro Azul, Duke 9361 (MO). SAN BLAS: Just N of Mandinga airport, Duke 14850, 14851 (MO).
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